Changes in Intestinal Microbiota Are Associated with Islet Function in a Mouse Model of Dietary Vitamin A DeficiencyRead the full article
Journal of Diabetes Research publishes articles related to type 1 and type 2 diabetes. Topics include etiology, pathogenesis, management, and prevention of diabetes, as well as associated complications such as nephropathy.
Chief Editor Dr Mark Yorek, from the University of Iowa, is currently researching vascular and neural disease related to obesity and diabetes. His active research studies focus on etiology, treatment and prevention of nerve damage.
Latest ArticlesMore articles
Depression and Its Predictors among Diabetes Mellitus Patients Attending Treatment in Hawassa University Comprehensive Specialized Hospital, Southern Ethiopia
Background. Patients with diabetes mellitus are at twice the risk of developing depression than the general population. The coexistence of diabetes and depression largely contributes to increased morbidity and mortality and results in high healthcare cost. Objective. The aim is to assess severity of depression and its determinants in diabetes outpatients at Hawassa University Comprehensive Specialized Referral Hospital, southern Ethiopia. Methods. An institutional-based cross-sectional study was done using a systematic sampling method. To assess the magnitude of depression, the patient health questionnaire-9 scale was used. Then, the data were entered into EpiData version 3.1 and exported to SPSS version 20 software. Binary logistic regression was used to assess the association between dependent variable and independent variables. Results. The magnitudes of depression were found to be 41.5%. The potential predictors were adhering to alcohol intake (adjusted odds ratio, , 95% CI: 1.52, 9.06), loss of someone very close or spouse (, 95% CI 3.07, 15.19), having no social support (, 95% CI: 1.63, 8.29), not adhering to the recommended dietary regimen (, 95% CI 3.07, 15.19), not adhering to physical activity (, 95% CI: 1.86,9.014), not adhering to medication (, 95% CI: 1.7, 10.31), and not having raised blood pressure of 140/90 mmHg and above (, 95% CI: 3.40, 16.17). Conclusion. Depression was a common comorbidity associated with diabetes occurring in more than four in ten of the participants.
Enterotype Bacteroides Is Associated with a High Risk in Patients with Diabetes: A Pilot Study
Background. More and more studies focus on the relationship between the gastrointestinal microbiome and type 2 diabetes, but few of them have actually explored the relationship between enterotypes and type 2 diabetes. Materials and Methods. We enrolled 134 patients with type 2 diabetes and 37 nondiabetic controls. The anthropometric and clinical indices of each subject were measured. Fecal samples of each subject were also collected and were processed for 16S rDNA sequencing. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to determine the associations of enterotypes with type 2 diabetes. Multiple linear regression analysis was used to explore the relationship between lipopolysaccharide levels and insulin sensitivity after adjusting for age, BMI, TG, HDL-C, DAO, and TNF-α. The correlation analysis between factors and microbiota was identified using Spearman correlation analysis. The correlation analysis between factors was identified using partial correlation analysis. Results. Gut microbiota in type 2 diabetes group exhibited lower bacterial diversity compared with nondiabetic controls. The fecal communities from all subjects clustered into two enterotypes distinguished by the levels of Bacteroides and Prevotella. Logistic regression analysis showed that the Bacteroides enterotype was an independent risk factor for type 2 diabetes by decreasing insulin sensitivity. The levels of lipopolysaccharide and tumor necrosis factor-alpha were higher in the Bacteroides enterotype compared to the Prevotella enterotype. Partial correlation analysis showed that lipopolysaccharide was closely associated with diamine oxidase, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, and Gutt insulin sensitivity index after adjusting for multiple covariates. Furthermore, the level of lipopolysaccharide was found to be an independent risk factor for insulin sensitivity. Conclusions. We identified two enterotypes, Bacteroides and Prevotella, among all subjects. Our results showed that the Bacteroides enterotype was an independent risk factor for type 2 diabetes, which was due to increased levels of lipopolysaccharide causing decreased insulin sensitivity.
Xuesaitong Protects Podocytes from Apoptosis in Diabetic Rats through Modulating PTEN-PDK1-Akt-mTOR Pathway
Diabetic kidney disease (DKD) is a major cause of end-stage renal disease (ESRD), and therapeutic strategies for delaying its progression are limited. Loss of podocytes by apoptosis characterizes the early stages of DKD. To identify novel therapeutic options, we investigated the effects of Xuesaitong (XST), consisting of total saponins from Panax notoginseng, on podocyte apoptosis in streptozotocin- (STZ-) induced diabetic rats. XST (5 mg/kg·d) or Losartan (10 mg/kg·d) was given to diabetic rats for 12 weeks. Albuminuria, renal function markers, and renal histopathology morphological changes were examined. Podocyte apoptosis was determined by triple immunofluorescence labelling including a TUNEL assay, WT1, and DAPI. Renal expression of Nox4, miRNA-214, PTEN, PDK1, phosphorylated Akt, mTOR, and mTORC1 was detected. In diabetic rats, severe hyperglycaemia and albuminuria developed, and apoptotic podocytes were markedly increased in diabetic kidneys. However, XST attenuated albuminuria, mesangial expansion, podocyte apoptosis, and morphological changes of podocytes in diabetic rats. Decreased expression of PTEN, as well as increased expression of Nox4, miRNA-214, PDK1, phosphorylated Akt, mTOR, and mTORC1, was detected. These abnormalities were partially restored by XST treatment. Thus, XST ameliorated podocyte apoptosis partly through modulating the PTEN-PDK1-Akt-mTOR pathway. These novel findings might point the way to a natural therapeutic strategy for treating DKD.
Portable Gentle Jogger Improves Glycemic Indices in Type 2 Diabetic and Healthy Subjects Living at Home: A Pilot Study
Background. Physical inactivity is a high-risk factor for type 2 diabetes. Increased physical activity improves indices of glycemic control. Continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) allows the investigation of glycemic control during activities of daily living. A pilot study was undertaken to determine the effects of the portable Gentle Jogger (passive simulated jogging device (JD)) that decreases physical inactivity by effortlessly producing body movements on glycemic indices of healthy and type 2 diabetes subjects using CGM during activities of daily living. Methods. A single-arm, nonblinded study was carried out in 22 volunteers (11 type 2 diabetics and 11 healthy subjects), using continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) for 14 days. On day 4, subjects were provided with JD and instructed to use it a minimum of 3 times per day for 30 min for 7 days. CGM data was analyzed at baseline (BL) and during 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, and 7 days of JD (JD 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7) and 1-2-day post JD (Post JD1 and 2) and the following 24 hr indices computed mean glucose (mGLu), SUM of all glucose values, % coefficient of variation (%CV), area under the 24-hour curve (AUC), time spent above range (TAR, glucose 180-250 mg/dl), and time in range (TIR). Results. In healthy subjects, there were significantly lower values of mGlu and SUM compared to BL for all days of JD usage. In type 2 diabetics, mGlu, SUM, and AUC were significantly lower compared to BL, for all days of JD usage and Post JD1. TAR was significantly lower and TIR significantly improved during JD, in type 2 diabetics without change in %CV. Conclusion. Gentle Jogger is a portable, passive movement technology that reduces physical inactivity while improving 24 hr glycemic control. It can be self-administered as a standalone device or as an adjunct to diabetic medications. This trial is registered with NCT03550105.
Swimming Exercise Protects against Insulin Resistance via Regulating Oxidative Stress through Nox4 and AKT Signaling in High-Fat Diet-Fed Mice
Nonpharmaceutical therapies such as exercise training and diet intervention are widely used for the treatment of insulin resistance (IR). Although the skeletal muscle is the major peripheral tissue of glucose metabolism under insulin stimulation, the mechanism underlying muscle IR is poorly understood. Using a high-fat diet-induced IR mouse model, we here show that NADPH oxidase 4 (Nox4) upregulation mediates the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) that causes metabolic syndrome featuring IR. The Nox4 expression level was markedly elevated in IR mice, and Nox4 overexpression was sufficient to trigger IR. Conversely, downregulation of Nox4 expression through exercise training prevented diet-induced IR by reducing the production of ROS and enhancing the AKT signaling pathway. Thus, this study indicates that exercise might improve IR through a reduction of Nox4-induced ROS in the skeletal muscle and enhancement of AKT signal transduction.
Incidence and Time Trends of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus among Adults in Zhejiang Province, China, 2007-2017
Aims. Population-based incidence data are paramount to assess the effects of prevention strategies for diabetes, yet the relevant studies in mainland China are scarce. This study is aimed at estimating the type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) incidence and time trends in Chinese adults. Material and Methods. Based on the Diabetes Surveillance System of Zhejiang Province, 879,769 newly diagnosed T2DM cases were identified from January 1, 2007, to December 31, 2017. Annual incidence, incidence rate ratios (IRRs), and average annual percentage change with their 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were reported. Results. The age-standardized overall incidence rate of T2DM was reported to be 281.73 (95% CI: 281.26-282.20) per 100,000 person-years, 293.19 (95% CI: 292.51-293.87) in males and 270.42 (95% CI: 269.76-271.09) in females. Compared with the ≥80 years age group, younger adults were at lower risk for T2DM (IRRs ranged from 0.035 to 0.986 and the 95% CIs did not include the null), except for the 70-79 years age group (IRR: 1.087, 95% CI: 1.077-1.097). Compared with females and rural areas, the risk for T2DM was higher in males (IRR: 1.083, 95% CI: 1.079-1.088) and urban areas (IRR: 1.005, 95% CI: 1.001-1.009), respectively. The standardized annual incidence rate increased from 164.85 in 2007 to 268.65 per 100,000 person-years in 2017, with an average annual increase of 4.01% and grew more rapidly in male, younger, and rural area populations. Conclusions. Our study suggested a significant increase in the incidence rate of T2DM among Chinese over the past decade, especially in adults characterized by male sex, younger age, and rural areas.