Behavior of SD-OCT Detectable Hyperreflective Foci in Diabetic Macular Edema Patients after Therapy with Anti-VEGF Agents and Dexamethasone ImplantsRead the full article
Journal of Diabetes Research publishes articles related to type 1 and type 2 diabetes. Topics include etiology, pathogenesis, management, and prevention of diabetes, as well as associated complications such as nephropathy.
Chief Editor Dr Mark Yorek, from the University of Iowa, is currently researching vascular and neural disease related to obesity and diabetes. His active research studies focus on etiology, treatment and prevention of nerve damage.
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The Value of Ketone Bodies in the Evaluation of Kidney Function in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus
Objectives. Recent studies have shown that the slightly elevated circulating levels of ketone bodies (KBs) played a significant role in the treatment of various diseases. This study is aimed at investigating the association between different levels of KBs and kidney function in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Methods. A retrospective study of 955 patients with T2DM (426 women and 529 men) admitted to our hospital from December 2017 to September 2019 was conducted. Patients were divided into different groups in line with the levels of KBs (low-normal group: 0.02-0.04 mmol/L, middle-normal group: 0.05-0.08 mmol/L, high-normal group: 0.09-0.27 mmol/L, and slightly elevated group: >0.27 and <3.0 mmol/L). Results. In the present study, individuals with high-normal levels of KBs had the lowest risk of diabetic kidney disease (DKD) and increased peak systolic velocity (PSV); those with middle-normal levels of KBs had the lowest risk of increased renal arterial resistive index (RI), with a positive correlation between increased α1-microglobulin and KB concentration. In addition, the indicators of glomerulus, renal tubules, and renal arteries were all poor with slightly elevated circulating levels of KBs, and KB concentration lower than 0.09 mmol/L can be applied as the threshold for low risk of renal function damage. Conclusions. In summary, slightly elevated circulating levels of ketone bodies are not of benefit for renal function in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.
Predictive Value of First-Trimester Glycosylated Hemoglobin Levels in Gestational Diabetes Mellitus: A Chinese Population Cohort Study
This study was aimed at exploring the predictive value of first-trimester glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) levels in the diagnosis of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). A total of 744 pregnant women registered at the Peking University International Hospital between March 2017 and March 2019 were included in this study. Data on personal characteristics and biochemical indicators of the pregnant women were collected during the first trimester. The International Association of Diabetes and Pregnancy Study Groups has adopted specific diagnostic criteria as the gold standard for the diagnosis of GDM. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve statistics were used to assess the predictive value of first-trimester HbA1c levels in the diagnosis of GDM. HbA1c levels in the first trimester were significantly higher in the GDM group than in the non-GDM group ( vs. , ). The first-trimester HbA1c level was an independent risk factor for gestational diabetes. The area under the ROC curve (AUC) of HbA1c for GDM was 0.655 (95% confidence interval 0.620-0.689, ). The positive likelihood ratio was the highest at , sensitivity was 2.78, and specificity was 99.83%. There was no statistical difference in AUC between fasting blood glucose and HbA1c (). First-trimester HbA1c levels can be used to predict GDM. The risk of GDM was significantly increased in pregnant women with . There was no statistical difference between first-trimester HbA1c and fasting blood glucose levels in predicting GDM.
Role and Risk Factors of Glycosylated Hemoglobin Levels in Early Disease Screening
Objective. To clarify the correlation among glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c), gender, age, fatty liver, and biochemical indicators through the analysis of big database, and to further investigate the risk factors affecting HbA1c, so as to lay a foundation for the study of HbA1c-related diseases and disease management. Methods. People who have been examined in Health Promotion Center from July 2018 to June 2019 were selected as the research objects. All data were analyzed using the Windows R software (version 3.5.1). Detailed medical history inquiry, laboratory examination, and B-ultrasound examination were carried out for the selected sample population. We determined the sample population according to the inclusion and exclusion criteria and, then, further grouped and analyzed the data. -test or Mann–Whitney test was used for continuous variable comparison, and chi-square test was used to compare categorical variables. Logistic regression analysis was used to analyze the risk factors of HbA1c. Results. A total of 23,933 subjects were included in this study. The HbA1c level of men was significantly higher than that of women, the HbA1c level of the group with diabetes was higher than that of the group with no diabetes, and the HbA1c level of the group with fatty liver was higher than that of the group with no fatty liver. In the group with no diabetes, the HbA1c level increased with weight gain. Age, gender (male), fatty liver, waist circumference, systolic blood pressure (SBP), triglyceride (TG), blood urea nitrogen (BUN), free thyroxine (FT4), and red blood cell (RBC) were the risk factors for elevated HbA1c level, while high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), uric acid (UA), creatinine (Cr), free triiodothyronine (FT3), and hemoglobin were protective factors. Conclusion. Blood glucose, age, weight, gender, fatty liver, blood lipids, and UA are related to the increase of HbA1c level. HbA1c is related to many metabolic indexes and may be used as a marker for early detection of chronic diseases.
Risk of Dysglycemia in Pregnancy amongst Kenyan Women with HIV Infection: A Nested Case-Control Analysis from the STRiDE Study
Introduction. Gestational diabetes is a common complication, whose incidence is growing globally. There is a pressing need to obtain more data on GDM in low- and middle-income countries, especially amongst high-risk populations, as most of the data on GDM comes from high-income countries. With the growing awareness of the role HIV plays in the progression of noncommunicable diseases and the disproportionate HIV burden African countries like Kenya face, investigating the potential role HIV plays in increasing dysglycemia amongst pregnant women with HIV is an important area of study. Methods. The STRiDE study is one of the largest ever conducted studies of GDM in Kenya. This study enrolled pregnant women aged between 16 and 50 who were receiving care from public and private sector facilities in Eldoret, Kenya. Within this study, women received venous testing for glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) and fasting glucose between 8- and 20-week gestational age. At their 24-32-week visit, they received a venous 75 g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). Because of the pressing need to assess the burden of GDM within the population of pregnant women with HIV, a nested case-control study design was used. Pregnant women with HIV within the larger STRiDE cohort were matched to non-HIV-infected women within the STRiDE cohort at a 1 : 3 ratio based on body mass index, parity, family history of GDM, gestational age, and family history of hypertension. The measurements of glucose from the initial visit (fasting glucose and HbA1c) and follow-up visit (OGTT) were compared between the two groups of HIV+ cases and matched HIV- controls. Results. A total of 83 pregnant women with HIV were well matched to 249 non-HIV-infected women from the STRiDE cohort with marital status being the only characteristic that was statistically significantly different between the two groups. Statistically significant differences were not observed in the proportion of women who developed GDM, the fasting glucose values, the HbA1c, or OGTT measurements between the two groups. Discussion. Significant associations were not seen between the different measures of glycemic status between pregnant women with and without HIV. While significant differences were not seen in this cohort, additional investigation is needed to better describe the association of dysglycemia with HIV, especially in Kenyan populations with a higher prevalence of GDM.
Liraglutide Regulates the Kidney and Liver in Diabetic Nephropathy Rats through the miR-34a/SIRT1 Pathway
Purpose. To explore the regulatory effects of liraglutide on the kidney and liver through the miR-34a/SIRT1 pathway with related factors in diabetic nephropathy (DN) rats. Methods. DN rats were randomly divided into two groups () and were injected with liraglutide or normal saline twice a day. The 24-hour urine microalbumin content and biochemical index levels were measured. qRT-PCR was performed to detect the expression of miR-34a in the kidney and liver tissues. The levels of SIRT1, HIF-1a, Egr-1, and TGF-β1 in kidney and liver tissues were determined using qRT-PCR, western blot, and immunohistochemistry. Electron microscopy and HE staining were used to observe the ultrastructure and pathological changes. Results. Liraglutide treatment in DN rats decreased blood glucose, 24-hour urine microalbumin, TC, TG, LDL-C, UA, Cr, UREA, ALT, and AST levels and increased the level of HDL-C (). Compared with the control group, the miR-34a levels were significantly decreased in kidney and liver tissues followed by liraglutide treatment (). The levels of SIRT1 in the liraglutide group are significantly higher than those in the control group with the kidney and liver tissues (). Conversely, the contents of HIF-1a, Egr-1, and TGF-β1 were significantly lower in the liraglutide group than in the control group (). Electron microscopy showed that the kidney of the liraglutide-treated group exhibited minor broadening of the mesangial areas, fewer deposits, and a well-organized foot process. HE staining revealed that the kidney of the liraglutide-treated rats had a more regular morphology of the glomerulus and Bowman sac cavity and lighter tubular edema. Additionally, the liraglutide-treated DN rats had a clear hepatic structure, a lower degree of steatosis, and mild inflammatory cell infiltration. Conclusion. Liraglutide, through its effect on the miR-34a/SIRT1 pathway, may have a protective role in the kidney and liver of DN rats.
The Association of Hemoglobin A1c and Fasting Glucose Levels with hs-CRP in Adults Not Diagnosed with Diabetes from the KNHANES, 2017
Purpose. High sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) has been used as a biomarker to assess the risk of cardiovascular accidents (CVA) and to measure general inflammation in the body. This study investigated the relationship and extent of correlation between serum glucose level markers and hs-CRP as a means to assess CVA risk through hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) and fasting glucose levels. Methods. This cross-sectional, population-based study used data from the 2017 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES). From the total sample of 8,127 people, 4,590 subjects were excluded due to age (<19 years) (), diabetes mellitus (DM) diagnosis or medication (), inactivity (), pregnancy (), hypoglycemia (<70 mg/dL) (), smoking history (), and missing data (). In total, 3,537 adults not diagnosed with diabetes were selected. Their hs-CRP levels were compared with the glucose level markers using a complex sample general linear regression analysis. Results. We adjusted for sedentary hours, smoking, binge drinking frequency, age, sex, mean SBP, triglycerides, and waist circumference. Increases in HbA1c correlated with hs-CRP levels (, , and ). Changes in the fasting glucose levels were also associated with the hs-CRP levels (, , and ). Conclusion. This study showed a linear association between HbA1c and fasting glucose levels and hs-CRP. It also showed that changes in the hs-CRP level were better correlated with those in the HbA1c levels than in the fasting glucose levels.