Article of the Year 2020
Metabolism: A Novel Shared Link between Diabetes Mellitus and Alzheimer’s DiseaseRead the full article
Journal of Diabetes Research publishes articles related to type 1 and type 2 diabetes. Topics include etiology, pathogenesis, management, and prevention of diabetes, as well as associated complications such as nephropathy.
Chief Editor Dr Mark Yorek, from the University of Iowa, is currently researching vascular and neural disease related to obesity and diabetes. His active research studies focus on etiology, treatment and prevention of nerve damage.
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Effect of Admission Hyperglycemia on Short-Term Prognosis of Patients with Non-ST Elevation Acute Coronary Syndrome without Diabetes Mellitus
Objective. To evaluate the effect of admission hyperglycemia on the short-term prognosis of patients with non-ST elevation acute coronary syndrome (NSTE-ACS) without diabetes mellitus. Methods. The clinical data of 498 patients with NSTE-ACS admitted to the Department of Cardiology of the First Affiliated Hospital of Henan University of Science and Technology between March 2018 and November 2020 were analyzed. Based on the blood glucose (BG) level at admission, patients were divided into three groups: A ( mmol/L), B (), and C ( mmol/L). The clinical data of the three groups were compared. Results. There was no significant difference between the three groups in terms of age, sex, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, smoking, and history of myocardial infarction (). However, there were significant differences in the incidences of multivessel disease, renal insufficiency, pump failure, and emergency percutaneous coronary intervention, and levels of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, cardiac troponin T, and creatine kinase isoenzyme MB among the three groups ( for all). The incidences of severe pump failure, malignant arrhythmias, and death were significantly higher in groups B and C compared to group A (). Additionally, the incidences of severe pump failure, malignant arrhythmias, and death were significantly higher in group C compared to group B (). Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that hyperglycemia, renal insufficiency, Killip grade III/IV, and age were risk factors of in-hospital death. Conclusion. Hyperglycemia at admission is a risk factor for adverse in-hospital clinical outcomes in patients with NSTE-ACS.
Aberrant Brain Functional Connectivity Strength and Effective Connectivity in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus
Alterations of brain functional connectivity in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) have been reported by resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging studies, but the underlying precise neuropathological mechanism remains unclear. This study is aimed at investigating the implicit alterations of functional connections in T2DM by integrating functional connectivity strength (FCS) and Granger causality analysis (GCA) and further exploring their associations with clinical characteristics. Sixty T2DM patients and thirty-three sex-, age-, and education-matched healthy controls (HC) were recruited. Global FCS analysis of resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging was performed to explore seed regions with significant differences between the two groups; then, GCA was applied to detect directional effective connectivity (EC) between the seeds and other brain regions. Correlations of EC with clinical variables were further explored in T2DM patients. Compared with HC, T2DM patients showed lower FCS in the bilateral fusiform gyrus, right superior frontal gyrus (SFG), and right postcentral gyrus, but higher FCS in the right supplementary motor area (SMA). Moreover, altered directional EC was found between the left fusiform gyrus and bilateral lingual gyrus and right medial frontal gyrus (MFG), as well as between the right SFG and bilateral frontal regions. In addition, triglyceride, insulin, and plasma glucose levels were correlated with the abnormal EC of the left fusiform, while disease duration and cognitive function were associated with the abnormal EC of the right SFG in T2DM patients. These results suggest that T2DM patients show aberrant brain function connectivity strength and effective connectivity which is associated with the diabetes-related metabolic characteristics, disease duration, and cognitive function, providing further insights into the complex neural basis of diabetes.
Skin Advanced Glycation End Products among Subjects with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus with or without Distal Sensorimotor Polyneuropathy
Aim of the Study. To examine the correlation between skin AGEs and parameters of distal sensorimotor polyneuropathy (DSPN) in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Materials and Methods. We included 132 subjects (88 men) with a mean age of 64.57 years and median T2DM duration of 14.5 years. Skin AGEs were measured with AGE reader mu connect (Diagnoptics) on the dominant arm. The device enables single and automated triplicate measurements: both of these were performed. DSPN was diagnosed through the neuropathy disability score (NDS). Small nerve fibre function was assessed by temperature and pinprick sensation on the foot. Bilateral measurement of the vibration perception threshold (VPT) on the hallux was carried out by using a neurothesiometer (Horwell Scientific Laboratory Supplies). Results. Single and triplicate AGE measurements were positively correlated with each other (Pearson’s correlation coefficient , -0.994, ). AGEs were higher among subjects with vs. those without DSPN (). Furthermore, they were higher among subjects with reduced vs. normal temperature sensation (), among subjects with reduced vs. normal pinprick sensation (), among those with abnormal vs. normal monofilament examination (), and among those with abnormal vs. normal VPT (). AGEs were correlated with NDS, VPT, and monofilament score. Conclusions. In T2DM, skin AGEs are increased in the presence of DSPN. This holds true both for large and for small nerve function impairment. Moreover, AGEs are correlated with DSPN severity.
Choroidal Vascularity Index as a Biomarker for Visual Response to Antivascular Endothelial Growth Factor Treatment in Diabetic Macular Edema
Purpose. To investigate the choroidal vascularity index (CVI) as a prognostic factor for the visual efficacy of antivascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) treatment in diabetic macular edema (DME). Methods. We retrospectively reviewed 92 DME eyes receiving anti-VEGF treatment, which were stratified as responders (≥5 letters gained) and nonresponders (<5 letters gained or lost). Baseline systematic features and optical coherence tomography features, including the CVI, adjusted ellipsoid zone (EZ) reflectivity, subretinal fluid (SRF), and disorganization of the retinal inner layers (DRIL), were evaluated between the two groups. Results. The baseline CVI was significantly lower in nonresponders than in responders (, , and , ). After adjusting for other factors, the baseline CVI, DRIL, SRF, and adjusted EZ reflectivity were significantly associated with visual outcomes (CVI: , ; adjusted EZ reflectivity: , ; DRIL: , ; and SRF: , ). Conclusion. DME patients with a higher CVI, higher adjusted EZ reflectivity, the presence of SRF, and the absence of DRIL at baseline were more likely to gain >5 letters in visual acuity after anti-VEGF treatment. CVI may serve as a novel biomarker for visual response to anti-VEGF treatment in DME.
Combination of GLP-1 Receptor Activation and Glucagon Blockage Promotes Pancreatic β-Cell Regeneration In Situ in Type 1 Diabetic Mice
Pancreatic β-cell neogenesis in vivo holds great promise for cell replacement therapy in diabetic patients, and discovering the relevant clinical therapeutic strategies would push it forward to clinical application. Liraglutide, a widely used antidiabetic glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) analog, has displayed diverse β-cell-protective effects in type 2 diabetic animals. Glucagon receptor (GCGR) monoclonal antibody (mAb), a preclinical agent that blocks glucagon pathway, can promote recovery of functional β-cell mass in type 1 diabetic mice. Here, we conducted a 4-week treatment of the two drugs alone or in combination in type 1 diabetic mice. Although liraglutide neither lowered the blood glucose level nor increased the plasma insulin level, the immunostaining showed that liraglutide expanded β-cell mass through self-replication, differentiation from precursor cells, and transdifferentiation from pancreatic α cells to β cells. The pancreatic β-cell mass increased more significantly after GCGR mAb treatment, while the combination group did not further increase the pancreatic β-cell area. However, compared with the GCGR mAb group, the combined treatment reduced the plasma glucagon level and increased the proportion of β cells/α cells. Our study evaluated the effect of liraglutide, GCGR mAb monotherapy, or combined strategy in glucose control and islet β-cell regeneration and provided useful clues for the future clinical application in type 1 diabetes.
Microbiome and Gestational Diabetes: Interactions with Pregnancy Outcome and Long-Term Infant Health
Microbiota composition is progressively being connected to different physiologic effects, such as glucose metabolism, and also to different pathologies, such as gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). GDM is a public health concern that affects an important percentage of pregnancies and is correlated with many adverse maternal and neonatal outcomes. An increasing number of studies are showing some connections between specific microbial composition of the gut microbiota and development of GDM and adverse outcomes in mothers and neonates. The aim of this review is to analyze the available data on microbial changes that characterize healthy pregnancies and pregnancies complicated by GDM and to understand the correlation of these changes with adverse maternal outcomes; this review will also discuss the consequences of these maternal gut microbiome alterations on neonatal microbiota composition and neonatal long-term outcomes.