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International Journal of Experimental Diabetes Research
Volume 1, Issue 4, Pages 299-313
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/EDR.2000.299

Prevention of Cyclophosphamide-induced Accelerated Diabetes in the NOD Mouse by Nicotinamide or a Soy Protein-based Infant Formula

1Department of Paediatrics, Faculty of Medicine and Health Science, University of Auckland, Private Bag, Auckland 92019, New Zealand
2Zhe Research Centre for Developmental Medicine and Biology, Faculty of Medicine and Health Science, University of Auckland, Private Bag, Auckland 92019, New Zealand
3Department of Community Medicine, Faculty of Medicine and Health Science, University of Auckland, Private Bag, Auckland 92019, New Zealand

Received 15 May 2000; Accepted 24 August 2000

Copyright © 2000 Hindawi Publishing Corporation. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Spontaneous diabetes in the NOD mouse can be prevented by nicotinamide or by an infant formula diet in which the protein source is replaced with casein hydrolysate (Pregestimil) or soy protein (Prosobee). NOD mice maintained on the standard diet (chow and water) and given cyclophosphamide (Cy) at day 95 develop accelerated and synchronised diabetes within 14 days. Here, we compared the ability of oral nicotinamide or Prosobee, either given alone or concurrently, from weaning, in preventing diabetes in the Cy model. The resulting insulitis and the expression of intra-islet inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) were examined at days 0, 4, 7, 11 and 14 following Cy administration. Intra-islet CD4 and CD8 cells and macrophages were also enumerated at day 11. In mice given the standard diet and injected with Cy at day 95 (group 5), diabetes developed in 7/11 mice, 14 days later. Mice exposed to oral nicotinamide (group 2), Prosobee (group 3) or both (group 4), did not develop the disease during this period and until a further 30 days (p = 0.03). In mice exposed to the standard diet and without Cy treatment (group 1) the insulitis scores increased slowly until day 11 and then declined slightly at day 14 whereas mice exposed to the same diet but given Cy at day 95, showed a sharp decline at day 4 followed by a rapid increase between day 7–14. However, in mice given either nicotinamide, Prosobee or both, the insulitis scores at most time-points were generally lower than in Cy-teated animals on the standard diet. In the latter group, CD4 and CD8 cells and macrophages were also higher at day 11 than all other 4 groups (CD4: p < 0.05; CD8: p < 0.05; macrophages: p < 0.0001). The number of iNOS labelled cells increased progressively in mice on the standard diet and given Cy and were significantly higher at days 4, 7 and 11 than in the 3 dietary groups. Thus, oral nicotinamide or Prosobee, either alone or together, prevents Cy induced diabetes in the NOD mouse. The protective diets suppress Cyinduced intra-islet immune cell influx and iNOS expression.