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Experimental Diabetes Research
Volume 2007, Article ID 52487, 8 pages
Review Article

Pharmacotherapies for Diabetic Retinopathy: Present and Future

1Bascom Palmer Eye Institute, Retina Center at Naples, 311 9th Street North, Naples, FL 34102, USA
2Bascom Palmer Eye Institute, 900 NW 17th Street, Miami, FL 33136, USA

Received 14 January 2007; Accepted 22 March 2007

Academic Editor: Subrata Chakrabarti

Copyright © 2007 Stephen G. Schwartz and Harry W. Flynn Jr. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Diabetic retinopathy remains a major cause of worldwide preventable blindness. Measures to avoid blindness include medical management (control of blood sugar, blood pressure, and serum lipids) and ocular management (laser photocoagulation and pars plana vitrectomy). Adjunctive pharmacologic therapies (intravitreal triamcinolone acetonide and anti-vascular endothelial growth factor agents) have shown early promise in the treatment of both diabetic macular edema and proliferative diabetic retinopathy. Other medications under investigation include the fluocinolone acetonide implantable device, extended-release dexamethasone implant, oral ruboxistaurin, and intravitreal hyaluronidase.