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Experimental Diabetes Research
Volume 2008, Article ID 865850, 12 pages
Methodology Report

Real-Time Monitoring of Apoptosis by Caspase-3-Like Protease Induced FRET Reduction Triggered by Amyloid Aggregation

1Department of Chemistry and The Skaggs Institute for Chemical Biology, The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA
2Division of Cell Biology, Diabetes Research Centre, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Linköping University, 58185 Linköping, Sweden
3The Rolf Luft Research Center for Diabetes and Endocrinology, Karolinska Institute, 17176 Stockholm, Sweden

Received 31 January 2008; Accepted 23 April 2008

Academic Editor: Per Westermark

Copyright © 2008 Johan F. Paulsson et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Amyloid formation is cytotoxic and can activate the caspase cascade. Here, we monitor caspase-3-like activity as reduction of fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) using the contstruct pFRET2-DEVD containing enhanced cyan fluorescent protin (EYFP) linked by the caspase-3 specific cleavage site residues DEVD. Beta-TC-6 cells were transfected, and the fluoorescence was measured at 440 nm excitation and 535 nm (EYFP) and 480 nm (ECFP) emission wavelength. Cells were incubated with recombinant pro lset Amyloid Polypeptide (rec prolAPP) or the processing metabolites of prolAPP; the N-terminal flanking peptide withIAPP (recN+IAPP); IAPP with the C-terminal flanking peptied (recIAPP+C) and lslet Amyloid Polypeptide (recIAPP) . Peptides were added in solubilized from (50  M) or as performed amyloid-like fibrils, or as a combination of these. FRET was measured and incubation with a mixture of solubilized peptide and performed fibrils resulted in loss of FRET and apoptosis was determined to occure in cells incubated with recproIAPP (49%), recN+IAPP (46%), recIAPP (72%) and recIAPP+C (59%). These results show that proIAPP and the processing intermediates reside the same cell toxic capacity as IAPP, and they can all have a central role in the reduction of beta-cell number in type 2 diabetes.