Journal of Diabetes Research / 2012 / Article / Tab 1

Review Article

Prevention of Diabetic Complications by Activation of Nrf2: Diabetic Cardiomyopathy and Nephropathy

Table 1

Nrf2 activators were treated to diabetic animals and cells.

Nrf2 activatorsMechanismsTarget organsSpeciesWays and volumeReferences

InsulinNuclear translocationBrain endothelial cellHuman100 nM, 30 min[23]

HMEC-1 endothelial cellHuman4 mol/L, 6–48 h [13]
Pancreatic islet
RIN cells
40 μg/kg, IP daily, 8 days
10 μM, 3 h
SulforaphaneDisrupt the Keap1-Nrf2 complex nuclear translocationKidneyMice12.5 mg/kg,
p.o. 16 weeks
Mesangial cellsHuman1.25 mmol/L
Neuro2a cell
Rat0.5 and 1 mg/kg, 6 weeks
5.5 mM

OltiprazNuclear translocationLiverMice150 mg/kg, IP tertian, 5 times[26]
Adipose/muscleMice0.75 g/kg p.o., 28 weeks [27]

tBHQEnhance expression and nuclear accumulationKidneyMice1% p.o., 4 and 12 week [28]
Renal mesangial cellsHuman6.25 mmol/L [22]

MG132Decrease degradationKidneyRat 10 μg/kg IP, daily, 12 weeks[8]

PETNInduce HO-1Blood vesselRat15 mg/kg/day, p.o. 7 weeks[29]

LABActivate NQO1Vascular smooth muscle cells
Vessel tissue
Rat50 μmol/L
50 mg/kg IP. daily, 15 days

AGE-BSANuclear translocationAortic endothelial cellsBovine100 μg mL−1, 0–24 hours [30]

ResveratrolIncrease expressionKidneyRat5 mg/kg, p.o., 30 days [31]

DH404Disrupt the Keap1-Nrf2 complexHL-1 cells
Mice200 nmol/L, 12 hour
10 mg/kg, IP., tertian 2 weeks

CAIncrease the expressionkidney
mesangial cells
25/50 mg/kg, p.o., 16 weeks
5 mmol/L

TelmisartanSuppression of NAD(P)H oxidaseKidneyMice5 mg/kg, p.o., 4 weeks [32]

Notes. RIN cells: rat pancreatic β-cell line RINm5F; HMEC-1 cells: human microvascular endothelial cells; tBHQ: tert-butylhydroquinone; PETN: pentaerithrityl tetranitrate; LAB: magnesium lithospermate B; AGE-BSA: AGE-modified bovine albumin; CA: cinnamic aldehyde; HL-1 cells: adult murine atrial cardiomyocyte tumor lineage p.o.: diet; IP: intraperitoneal injection.

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