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Experimental Diabetes Research
Volume 2012, Article ID 350852, 6 pages
Clinical Study

Plasma Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor-1 Is Associated with End-Stage Proliferative Diabetic Retinopathy in the Northern Chinese Han Population

1Clinical College of Ophthalmology, Tianjin Medical University, Tianjin 300020, China
2Center of Vitreoretinopathy, Tianjin Eye Hospital, Tianjin 300020, China

Received 26 June 2012; Revised 2 September 2012; Accepted 9 October 2012

Academic Editor: D. R. Webb

Copyright © 2012 Ze-Long Zhong and Song Chen. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Objective. To identify predictors of end-stage proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR) in a cohort of individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) from the Northern Chinese Han population. Methods. We investigated characteristics of 153 consecutive diabetic patients with end-stage PDR (62 males, 91 females), 123 consecutive PDR patients without end-stage PDR (48 males, 75 females), and 151 normal subjects (63 males, 88 females). Only one eye of each patient or healthy subject was included in this study. Univariate logistic regression models and multivariate logistic regression models were constructed to evaluate the predictors of end-stage PDR. Results. In univariate analysis, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, duration of diabetes, family history of T2DM, and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) were significently associated with end-stage PDR. After multivariate analysis, family history of T2DM, plasma PAI-1 levels, smoking, and duration of diabetes were four positive predictors associated with end-stage PDR. Conclusions. Higher plasma levels of PAI-1 were associated with end-stage PDR in the Northern Chinese Han population with T2DM.