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Experimental Diabetes Research
Volume 2012, Article ID 615835, 9 pages
Clinical Study

Links between Metabolic Syndrome and Cardiovascular Autonomic Dysfunction

1Unit of Internal Medicine, Endocrinology, Andrology and Metabolic Diseases, Department of Emergency and Organ Transplantations (D.E.T.O.), University of Bari “A. Moro”, 70124 Bari, Italy
2Department of Clinical Pharmacology and Epidemiology, Consorzio Mario Negri Sud, 66030 Santa Maria Imbaro, Chieti, Italy
3Unit of Biostatistics, Scientific Institute Casa Sollievo della Sofferenza, San Giovanni Rotondo, 71013 Foggia, Italy

Received 8 November 2011; Accepted 13 December 2011

Academic Editor: Nicola Montano

Copyright © 2012 G. Garruti et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Background. Type 2 diabetes (T2D) might occur within metabolic syndrome (MbS). One of the complications of T2D is an impaired (imp) cardiovascular autonomic function (CAF). Aims. In subjects with T2D and age ≤ 55 years, the prevalence of impCAF and its relationship with BMI, waist, Hb values, MbS, hypertension, and family history of T2D and/or hypertension were analysed. Methods. 180 subjects consecutively undergoing a day hospital for T2D were studied. The IDF criteria were used to diagnose MbS. To detect impCAF, 5 tests for the evaluation of CAF were performed with Cardionomic (Meteda, Italy). Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed. Results. The prevalence of impCAF and MbS were 33.9% and 67.8%, respectively. Among diabetics with impCAF, 86.9% had MbS. ImpCAF was significantly associated with MbS, overweight, and Hb %. Both logistic ( ) and Poisson ( ) models showed a positive association between impCAF and MbS. The degree of ImpCAF showed a positive linear correlation with BMI and Hb values. Conclusions. The study demonstrates that glycaemic control and overweight influence CAF and that T2D + MbS is more strongly associated with impCAF than isolated T2D. We suggest that MbS not only increases the cardiovascular risk of relatively young subjects with T2D but is also associated with impCAF.