Figure 3: Adenovirus-mediated expression of PDX-1, NeuroD1, and MafA together induced expression of the insulin gene in infected mMSCs. mMSCs were infected with diverse single recombinant adenoviruses, both of the two adenoviruses, a combination of the three adenoviruses, or Ad-GFP. Total RNA from mMSCs was isolated 3 d after infection, and RT-PCR analysis was performed to examine expression of the specified genes. Cultured mMSCs without infection served as the negative control.