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Experimental Diabetes Research
Volume 2012 (2012), Article ID 683680, 7 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2012/683680
Review Article

Aspects of Inflammation and Oxidative Stress in Pediatric Obesity and Type 1 Diabetes: An Overview of Ten Years of Studies

1Insitute for Clinical and Translational Science, University of California, 843 Health Science Road, Irvine, CA 92697, USA
2Department of Pediatrics, School of Medicine, University of California, 100 Theory, Irvine, CA 92697, USA
3Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, University of California, 360 Med. Suzge II, Irvine, CA 92697, USA

Received 8 May 2012; Accepted 16 August 2012

Academic Editor: Dan Nemet

Copyright © 2012 Brian Tran et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Obesity and type 1 diabetes (T1DM) are the two most common conditions of altered metabolism in children and adolescents. In both, similar long-term cardiovascular complications are known to occur, mediated in large part by underlying inflammatory and oxidative processes whose biochemical details remain relatively unclear. Through a series of experiments in these patient populations, over the last decade our laboratory has clarified a number of key issues in this field. Interestingly, while obese and type 1 diabetic children often differed in the specific type and magnitude of molecular alterations, in both groups a clear exaggeration of inflammatory and oxidative activation was detected when compared to healthy, age-matched controls. Our main findings include definition of resting and exercise-induced cytokine patterns and leukocyte profiles, patterns of activation of immune cells in vitro, and correlation of the magnitude of observed alterations with severity of obesity and quality of glycemic control. Further, we have identified a series of alterations in growth factor profiles during exercise that parallel inflammatory changes in obese children. This paper offers a concise overview of the salient results from this decade-long research effort.