Journal of Diabetes Research / 2012 / Article / Tab 2

Review Article

Cellular Dysfunction in Diabetes as Maladaptive Response to Mitochondrial Oxidative Stress

Table 2

Markers of oxidative damage in proteins.

Amino acidProduct

(i) ArginineGlutamic-semialdehyde
(ii) CysteineCysteine disulfides, Sulfenic acid
(iii) HistidineAspartate
Asparagine
2-Oxoimidazoline
2-Oxohistidine
(iv) Leucine3-,4-,5-Monohydroxyleucine
(v) Leucine, valine, isoleucine, proline, and othersProtein carbonyls
(vi) Lysine2-Amino-adipic-semialdehyde
(vii) MethionineMethionine sulfoxide
(viii) Phenylalanineortho- and meta-tyrosine
(ix) ProlineGlutamate
Glutamic-semialdehyde
2-Pyrrolidone
4-,5-Hydroxyproline
Pyroglutamic acid
(x) Threonine2-Amino-3-ketobutyric acid
(xi) Tryptophan2-, 4-, 5-, 6-, or 7-OH tryptophan
N-formylkynurenine
Kynurenine
(xii) TyrosineDi-tyrosine (Tyr-Tyr cross-links)
Dihydroxyphenylalanine (DOPA)
3-Nitrotirosine
3-Chlorotyrosine

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