Table 1: Summary of metformin trials in NAFLD/NASH patients.

ReferencesStudy designPatientsTherapyOutcomes

Marchesini et al. [52]OL, SA20 patients, (OB); NASH, elevated AMTsMetformin 1.5 g/d; 4 months ALT
IR
liver volume
Nair et al. [53]OL, SA28 patients, (OW/OB/T2DM); NAFLDMetformin 20 mg/kg/d; 12 months ALT and AST
IR
Histology improved
Uygun et al. [54]OL, RAND36 patients, (OW/OB); NASH, elevated AMTsMetformin 1.7 g/d + diet versus diet; 6 months IR
ALT and AST
Histology not improved
Bugianesi et al. [55]OL, RAND (MC)110 patients, (OW/OB/T2DM); NAFLD, elevated AMTsMetformin 2 g/d + diet versus vit E + diet versus die; 12 months AST and ALT
Histology improved
Schwimmer et al. [63]SA10 patients (OB/NT2DM children); NASH, elevated AMTsMetformin 1 g/d; 6 months AST and ALT
Liver fat
IR
Duseja et al. [56]OL, NRAND50 patients, (OW/OB); NAFLD, elevated AMTsMetformin 1.5 g/d; 6 months versus diet ALT and AST
IR
Loomba et al. [47]OL, SA28 patients, (OW/OB/T2DM); NASH, elevated AMTsMetformin 2 g/d; 12 monthsHistology improved
ALT and AST
IR
de Oliveira et al. [57]OL, SA20 patients, (OW/OB/T2DM); NASH, elevated AMTsMetformin 1 g/d; 12 months ALT
Histology improved
IR
Idilman et al. [58]OL, RAND74 patients, (OW/OB/T2DM); NASH, elevated AMTsMetformin 1.7 g/d; 12 months ALT
Histology not improved
IR
Nobili et al. [65]OL57 patients (OW/OB children); NASH/NAFLDMetformin 1.5 g/d versus diet; 24 months ALT and AST
IR
Histology improved
Haukeland et al. [59]PLAC, RAND48 patients (OW/OB/T2DM); NAFLD, elevated AMTsMetformin versus placebo; 6 months ALT and AST
IR
Histology not improved
Nadeau et al. [64]RAND50 patients (OB children); NAFLD/elevated AMTsMetformin 1.7 g/d + diet versus diet; 6 months ALT and AST
IR
Ultrasound pattern improved
Garinis et al. [35]OL, RAND50 patients, (OW/OB); NAFLD, normal AMTsMetformin 1 g/d + diet versus diet; 6 months ALT and AST, IR Ultrasound pattern improved
↑ Adiponectin

Abbreviations: ALT, alanine transaminase; AMTs, aminotransferases; AST, aspartate aminotransferase; IR, insulin resistance; NAFLD, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease; NASH, nonalcoholic steatohepatitis; NRAND, non randomized; NT2DM, non type 2 diabetes mellitus; OB, obese; OL, open label; OW, overweight; PLAC, placebo controlled; RAND, randomized; SA, single arm; T2DM, type 2 diabetes mellitus.