Journal of Diabetes Research / 2012 / Article / Tab 1

Clinical Study

Stepwise Increases in Left Ventricular Mass Index and Decreases in Left Ventricular Ejection Fraction Correspond with the Stages of Chronic Kidney Disease in Diabetes Patients

Table 1

Clinical characteristics of patients among different stages of CKD.

CharacteristicsStage 3
Stage 4
Stage 5
P for trendAll patients

Age (year)66.3 ± 12.468.4 ± 10.764.1 ± 11.50.03966.4 ± 11.6
Male gender (%)75.858.6*47.1*<0.00161.1
Smoking history (%)32.336.428.70.54032.6
Hypertension (%)79.881.897.7*†0.00186.0
Coronary artery disease (%)13.113.118.40.51414.7
Cerebrovascular disease (%)10.121.2*27.6*0.00919.3
Congestive heart failure (%)10.115.228.7*†0.00317.5
Systolic blood pressure (mmHg)144.5 ± 21.2141.2 ± 20.0148.3 ± 23.70.089144.6 ± 21.8
Diastolic blood pressure (mmHg)82.4 ± 12.377.4 ± 11.9*76.7 ± 14.1*0.00578.9 ± 13.0
Pulse pressure (mmHg)62.1 ± 16.763.8 ± 11.771.7 ± 19.9*†0.00165.7 ± 18.2
Body mass index (kg/m2)26.2 ± 4.026.3 ± 3.525.0 ± 3.8*†0.04325.9 ± 3.8

Laboratory parameters
 Albumin (g/L)41.3 ± 3.539.9 ± 3.9*37.3 ± 4.5*†<0.00139.6 ± 4.3
 Fasting glucose (mmol/L)8.2 ± 3.28.0 ± 3.88.3 ± 4.70.8968.1 ± 3.9
 HbA1c (%) * 0.032
 Triglyceride (mmol/L)1.8 (1.1–2.4)1.8 (1.4–2.6)1.8 (1.2–2.7)0.1731.8 (1.2–2.6)
 Total cholesterol (mmol/L)5.0 ± 1.15.1 ± 1.35.2 ± 1.40.5445.1 ± 1.3
 Hemoglobin (g/L)128.8 ± 18.7115.4 ± 19.2*93.1 ± 13.4*†<0.001113.2 ± 22.7
 Baseline eGFR (mL/min/1.73 m2)40.5 ± 6.623.1 ± 4.5*10.3 ± 3.0*†<0.00125.2 ± 13.3
 Calcium (mmol/L)2.4 ± 0.22.4 ± 0.22.3 ± 0.2*†<0.0012.4 ± 0.2
 Phosphate (mmol/L)1.1 ± 0.21.3 ± 0.2*1.6 ± 0.4*†<0.0011.3 ± 0.3
 Calcium-phosphorous product (mmol2/L2)2.8 ± 0.53.1 ± 0.6*3.6 ± 0.8*†<0.0013.1 ± 0.7
 Uric acid (μmol/L)456.7 ± 113.3505.4 ± 138.6*530.8 ± 143.3*0.001496.5 ± 135.1
Proteinuria (%)47.575.5*98.9*†<0.00172.9

Medications
 Aspirin use (%)30.232.334.50.82632.2
 ACEI and/or ARB use (%)80.283.363.1*†0.00376.1
 Non-ACEI/ARB antihypertensive drug use (%)67.780.8*94.3*†<0.00180.4
 Statin use (%)36.529.231.00.53232.2

Echocardiographic data
 Aortic root diameter (cm)3.3 ± 0.43.3 ± 0.43.2 ± 0.40.2623.3 ± 0.4
 LAD (cm)3.7 ± 0.63.9 ± 0.64.1 ± 0.6*†< 0.0013.9 ± 0.6
 LVIDd (cm)4.8 ± 0.74.9 ± 0.85.1 ± 0.7*†0.0054.9 ± 0.8
 LVIDs (cm)2.9 ± 0.73.1 ± 0.83.3 ± 0.8*†0.0023.1 ± 0.8
 LVMI (g/m2)129.5 ± 43.5139.1 ± 52.4167.1 ± 45.9*†<0.001144.3 ± 49.8
 LVH (%)44.461.6*83.9*†<0.00162.5
 LVEF (%)69.0 ± 11.167.0 ± 11.764.5 ± 13.2*0.03866.9 ± 12.1
 LVEF < 55% (%)4.011.1*17.2*0.01310.5
(%)78.984.975.00.25079.8

CKD: chronic kidney disease; eGFR: estimated glomerular filtration rate; ACEI: angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor; ARB: angiotensin II receptor blocker; LAD: left atrial diameter; LVIDd: left ventricular internal diameter in diastole; LVIDs: left ventricular internal diameter in systole; LVMI: left ventricular mass index; LVH: left ventricular hypertrophy; LVEF: left ventricular ejection fraction; E: peak early transmitral filling wave velocity; A: peak late transmitral filling wave velocity.
* compared to stage 3; compared to stage 4.