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Journal of Diabetes Research
Volume 2013, Article ID 243934, 10 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/243934
Review Article

Role of Vitamin D in Cardiometabolic Diseases

Department of Endocrinology, Shanghai Pudong Hospital, 2800 Gongwei Road, Huinan Town, Pudong, Shanghai 201399, China

Received 23 November 2012; Revised 9 January 2013; Accepted 9 January 2013

Academic Editor: T. S. Kern

Copyright © 2013 Chaoxun Wang. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Vitamin D deficiency is a highly prevalent condition. Low vitamin D levels have long been associated with bone diseases, such as rickets in children and osteomalacia and osteoporosis in adults. However, it has become apparent in recent years that adequate vitamin D levels are also important for optimal functioning of many organs and tissues throughout the body, including the cardiovascular system. Evolving data indicate that vitamin D deficiency is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Studies have shown that low vitamin D levels are associated with hypertension, diabetes, metabolic syndrome, left ventricular hypertrophy, and chronic vascular inflammation, all of which are risk factors for CVD. This paper reviews the definition and pathophysiology of vitamin D deficiency, clinical evidence linking vitamin D and CVD risk, diabetes and its complications, and metabolic syndrome.