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Figure 3: Immune response and Th17 cell differentiation. Differences in Th17 polarisation were observed when controls were compared with T1D patients using microarray data. Genes of interest were analysed by qRT-PCR and were found to be upregulated in T1D patients. STAT3 and TGF-beta were chosen as representatives of Th17 cell differentiation. Microarray data demonstrated that CD4 was one of the most significantly upregulated molecules in T1D patients.