Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Journal of Diabetes Research
Volume 2014, Article ID 171538, 7 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/171538
Research Article

Mediation Role of C-Reactive Protein on the Association between Smoking Quantity and Type 2 Diabetes in Current Chinese Smokers

1Department of Preventive Medicine, School of Public Health, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou 510080, China
2Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Food, Nutrition and Health, School of Public Health, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou 510080, China
3Department of Biostatistics and Epidemiology, School of Public Health, Sun Yat-Sen University, Northern Campus, 74 Zhongshan Road 2, Guangzhou 510080, China
4Guangdong Provincial Institute of Public Health, Guangdong Provincial Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Guangzhou 511430, China
5Guangdong Key Laboratory of Molecular Epidemiology, School of Public Health, Guangdong Pharmaceutical University, Guangzhou 510300, China
6Department of Clinical Nutrition, School of Public Health, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou 510080, China

Received 23 April 2014; Revised 14 June 2014; Accepted 15 June 2014; Published 3 July 2014

Academic Editor: Raffaele Marfella

Copyright © 2014 Dan Feng et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. W. Yang, J. Lu, J. Weng et al., “Prevalence of diabetes among men and women in China,” The New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 362, no. 12, pp. 1090–1101, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. S. Wild, G. Roglic, A. Green, R. Sicree, and H. King, “Global prevalence of diabetes: estimates for the year 2000 and projections for 2030,” Diabetes Care, vol. 27, no. 5, pp. 1047–1053, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. F. B. Hu, J. E. Manson, M. J. Stampfer et al., “Diet, lifestyle, and the risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus in women,” The New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 345, no. 11, pp. 790–797, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. C. Willi, P. Bodenmann, W. A. Ghali, P. D. Faris, and J. Cornuz, “Active smoking and the risk of type 2 diabetes: a systematic review and meta-analysis,” Journal of the American Medical Association, vol. 298, no. 22, pp. 2654–2664, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. H. Yeh, B. B. Duncan, M. I. Schmidt, N. Wang, and F. L. Brancati, “Smoking, smoking cessation, and risk for type 2 diabetes mellitus: a cohort study,” Annals of Internal Medicine, vol. 152, no. 1, pp. 10–17, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. N. H. Cho, J. C. N. Chan, H. C. Jang, S. Lim, H. L. Kim, and S. H. Choi, “Cigarette smoking is an independent risk factor for type 2 diabetes: A four-year community-based prospective study,” Clinical Endocrinology, vol. 71, no. 5, pp. 679–685, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. N. W. Hur, H. C. Kim, C. M. Nam, S. H. Jee, H. C. Lee, and I. Suh, “Smoking cessation and risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus: Korea Medical Insurance Corporation Study,” The European Journal of Cardiovascular Prevention and Rehabilitation, vol. 14, no. 2, pp. 244–249, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. M. Fröhlich, A. Imhof, G. Berg et al., “Association between C-reactive protein and features of the metabolic syndrome,” Diabetes Care, vol. 23, no. 12, pp. 1835–1839, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. J. C. Chambers, S. Eda, P. Bassett et al., “C-reactive protein, insulin resistance, central obesity, and coronary heart disease risk in Indian Asians from the United Kingdom compared with European whites,” Circulation, vol. 104, no. 2, pp. 145–150, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. N. Nakanishi, T. Shiraishi, and M. Wada, “Association between C-reactive protein and insulin resistance in a Japanese population: the Minoh study,” Internal Medicine, vol. 44, no. 6, pp. 542–547, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. S. Nakanishi, K. Yamane, N. Kamei, M. Okubo, and N. Kohno, “Elevated C-reactive protein is a risk factor for the development of type 2 diabetes in Japanese Americans,” Diabetes Care, vol. 26, no. 10, pp. 2754–2757, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. B. Thorand, H. Löwel, A. Schneider et al., “C-reactive protein as a predictor for incident diabetes mellitus among middle-aged men: Results from the MONICA Augsburg Cohort Study, 1984–;1998,” Archives of Internal Medicine, vol. 163, no. 1, pp. 93–99, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. H. Belfki, S. Ben Ali, S. Bougatef et al., “Association between C-reactive protein and type 2 diabetes in a Tunisian population,” Inflammation, vol. 35, no. 2, pp. 684–689, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. M. L. Sopori and W. Kozak, “Immunomodulatory effects of cigarette smoke,” Journal of Neuroimmunology, vol. 83, no. 1-2, pp. 148–156, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. L. A. Bazzano, J. He, P. Muntner, S. Vupputuri, and P. K. Whelton, “Relationship between cigarette smoking and novel risk factors for cardiovascular disease in the United States,” Annals of Internal Medicine, vol. 138, no. 11, pp. 891–897, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. M. Fröhlich, M. Sund, H. Löwel, A. Imhof, A. Hoffmeister, and W. Koenig, “Independent association of various smoking characteristics with markers of systemic inflammation in men. Results from a representative sample of the general population (MONICA Augsburg survey 1994/95),” European Heart Journal, vol. 24, no. 14, pp. 1365–1372, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. M. Y. Donath and S. E. Shoelson, “Type 2 diabetes as an inflammatory disease,” Nature Reviews Immunology, vol. 11, no. 2, pp. 98–107, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. L. Taylor, A. Loerbroks, R. M. Herr, R. D. Lane, J. E. Fischer, and J. F. Thayer, “Depression and smoking: mediating role of vagal tone and inflammation,” Annals of Behavioral Medicine, vol. 42, no. 3, pp. 334–340, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. D. Feng, T. Liu, D. F. Su et al., “The association between smoking quantity and hypertension mediated by inflammation in Chinese current smokers,” Journal of Hypertension, vol. 31, no. 9, pp. 1798–1805, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  20. H. Wang, Q. Qiu, L.-L. Tan et al., “Prevalence and determinants of diabetes and impaired fasting glucose among urban community-dwelling adults in Guangzhou, China,” Diabetes and Metabolism, vol. 35, no. 5, pp. 378–384, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. J. Helmersson, A. Larsson, B. Vessby, and S. Basu, “Active smoking and a history of smoking are associated with enhanced prostaglandin F2α, interleukin-6 and F2-isoprostane formation in elderly men,” Atherosclerosis, vol. 181, no. 1, pp. 201–207, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. D. F. Gu, L. J. Hinks, N. E. Morton, I. N. M. Day, and I. N. M. Day, “The use of long PCR to confirm three common alleles at the CYP2A6 locus and the relationship between genotype and smoking habit,” Annals of Human Genetics, vol. 64, no. 5, pp. 383–390, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. P. Primatesta, E. Falaschetti, S. Gupta, M. G. Marmot, and N. R. Poulter, “Association between smoking and blood pressure evidence from the health survey for England,” Hypertension, vol. 37, no. 2, pp. 187–193, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. W. Wen, Y. B. Xiang, W. Zheng et al., “The association of alcohol, tea, and other modifiable lifestyle factors with myocardial infarction and stroke in Chinese men,” CVD Prevention and Control, vol. 3, no. 3, pp. 133–140, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. M. Park, S. Chung, Y. Chang, and K. Kim, “Physical activity and physical fitness as predictors of all-cause mortality in Korean men,” Journal of Korean Medical Science, vol. 24, no. 1, pp. 13–19, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. R. M. Baron and D. A. Kenny, “The moderator-mediator variable distinction in social psychological research: conceptual, strategic, and statistical considerations,” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, vol. 51, no. 6, pp. 1173–1182, 1986. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. D. P. MacKinnon, A. J. Fairchild, and M. S. Fritz, “Mediation analysis,” Annual Review of Psychology, vol. 58, pp. 593–614, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. M. B. Pepys and G. M. Hirschfield, “C-reactive protein: a critical update,” Journal of Clinical Investigation, vol. 111, no. 12, pp. 1805–1812, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. M. C. Calle and M. L. Fernandez, “Inflammation and type 2 diabetes,” Diabetes and Metabolism, vol. 38, no. 3, pp. 183–191, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. C. Madsen, P. Nafstad, L. Eikvar, P. E. Schwarze, K. S. Rønningen, and L. L. Haaheim, “Association between tobacco smoke exposure and levels of C-reactive protein in the Oslo II Study,” European Journal of Epidemiology, vol. 22, no. 5, pp. 311–317, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. Y. S. Levitzky, C. Guo, J. Rong et al., “Relation of smoking status to a panel of inflammatory markers: the Framingham offspring,” Atherosclerosis, vol. 201, no. 1, pp. 217–224, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. X. Wang, W. Bao, J. Liu et al., “Inflammatory markers and risk of type 2 diabetes: a systematic review and meta-analysis,” Diabetes Care, vol. 36, no. 1, pp. 166–175, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. A. D. Blann, M. Seigneur, M. Steiner, J. Paul Miller, and C. N. McCollum, “Circulating ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 in peripheral artery disease and hypercholesterolaemia: Relationship to the location of atherosclerotic disease, smoking, and in the prediction of adverse events,” Thrombosis and Haemostasis, vol. 79, no. 6, pp. 1080–1085, 1998. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. E. Lapice, S. Maione, L. Patti et al., “Abdominal adiposity is associated with elevated C-reactive protein independent of BMI in healthy nonobese people,” Diabetes Care, vol. 32, no. 9, pp. 1734–1736, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  35. M. Andel, J. Polak, P. Kraml, P. Dlouhy, and V. Stich, “Chronic mild inflammation links obesity, metabolic syndrome, atherosclerosis and diabetes,” Vnitrní Lékarství, vol. 55, pp. 659–665, 2009. View at Google Scholar
  36. S. K. Venugopal, S. Devaraj, I. Yuhanna, P. Shaul, and I. Jialal, “Demonstration that C-reactive protein decreases eNOS expression and bioactivity in human aortic endothelial cells,” Circulation, vol. 106, no. 12, pp. 1439–1441, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  37. J. Tooke, “The association between insulin resistance and endotheliopathy,” Diabetes, Obesity and Metabolism, vol. 1, supplement 1, pp. S17–S22, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  38. G. Yuan, J. Jia, L. Di et al., “Effects of C-reactive protein on adipokines genes expression in 3T3-L1 adipocytes,” Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications, vol. 424, no. 3, pp. 462–468, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  39. S. M. Haffner, A. S. Greenberg, W. M. Weston, H. Chen, K. Williams, and M. I. Freed, “Effect of rosiglitazone treatment on nontraditional markers of cardiovascular disease in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus,” Circulation, vol. 106, no. 6, pp. 679–684, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  40. S. K. Vijay, M. Mishra, H. Kumar, and K. Tripathi, “Effect of pioglitazone and rosiglitazone on mediators of endothelial dysfunction, markers of angiogenesis and inflammatory cytokines in type-2 diabetes,” Acta Diabetologica, vol. 46, no. 1, pp. 27–33, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus