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Journal of Diabetes Research
Volume 2014, Article ID 313718, 12 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/313718
Review Article

Management of Cardiorenal Metabolic Syndrome in Diabetes Mellitus: A Phytotherapeutic Perspective

1The University of Sydney, Faculty of Pharmacy, Sydney, NSW 2006, Australia
2The University of Manitoba, Faculty of Pharmacy, Winnipeg, MB, Canada R3T 2N2
3The University of Sydney, Discipline of Pharmacology, School of Medical Sciences, Sydney Medical School, Sydney, NSW 2006, Australia

Received 24 December 2013; Revised 11 March 2014; Accepted 12 March 2014; Published 13 April 2014

Academic Editor: Ramesh K. Goyal

Copyright © 2014 Min Kyong Song et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Cardiorenal syndrome (CRS) is a complex disease in which the heart and kidney are simultaneously affected and their deleterious declining functions are reinforced in a feedback cycle, with an accelerated progression. Although the coexistence of kidney and heart failure in the same individual carries an extremely bad prognosis, the exact cause of deterioration and the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying the initiation and maintenance of the interaction are complex, multifactorial in nature, and poorly understood. Current therapy includes diuretics, natriuretic hormones, aquaretics (arginine vasopressin antagonists), vasodilators, and inotropes. However, large numbers of patients still develop intractable disease. Moreover, the development of resistance to many standard therapies, such as diuretics and inotropes, has led to an increasing movement toward utilization and development of novel therapies. Herbal and traditional natural medicines may complement or provide an alternative to prevent or delay the progression of CRS. This review provides an analysis of the possible mechanisms and the therapeutic potential of phytotherapeutic medicines for the amelioration of the progression of CRS.