Table 1: Summary of selected clinical trials in which adiponectin levels have been measured as a clinical outcome before and after exercise.

NumberSubjectsExercise intensityMeasured parametersResults

Measurement of adiponectin after exercise in healthy subjects
48Eight male and 8 female healthy subjects60 min stationary cycle ergometry session at 65% VO2 maxPlasma adiponectin, TNF-α, insulin, glucose, and leptinNeither male nor female subjects showed changes in adiponectin and leptin concentrations
156Six healthy male(i) First experiment: 30 min of heavy continuous running at 79% of VO2 max
(ii) Second experiment: strenuous intermittent exercise consisting of treadmill running at 60, 75, 90, and 100% of VO2 max
Serum concentration of adiponectin, insulin, and plasma concentrations of glucose and lactateNo significant change in adiponectin concentrations in either of these protocols
49Ten active male subjectsTwo similar trials, each trial consisted of 120 min cycling exercise at 50% VO2 max(i) Plasma adiponectin, FFA, and glycerol concentrations
(ii) Determining adiponectin protein and adiponectin receptor mRNA expression in skeletal muscle
No change in plasma adiponectin concentration and tissue mRNA expression of adiponectin receptors
15724 healthy male Endurance or resistance training 3 days/week for 12 weeks
(i) Endurance training (continuous running at 75–85% of MHR)
(ii) Resistance training
(4 sets of circuit weight training for 11 stations at 50–60% of one-repetition maximum)
Serum glucose, insulin, and adiponectinEndurance and resistance training were not accompanied by increased adiponectin levels

Measurement of adiponectin after exercise in obese subjects
15816 obese men and women (age, 63)12-week supervised exercise (5 days/wk, 60 min/day, treadmill/cycle ergometry at 85% of max HR)Insulin resistance, fat mass, adiponectin, TNF-α, and leptin levelsExercise reversed insulin resistance but there was no change in leptin and adiponectin levels
15919 overweight and obese girls12 weeks of supervised training (3 d/wk, 40 min each session)Insulin sensitivity, adiponectin, CRP, IL-6, IGF-1, blood lipids, and so forthInsulin sensitivity improved without change in adiponectin and leptin
16025 obese sedentary premenopausal women12 weeks of aerobic exercise program (5 d/wk, 50% of VO2 max)Plasma and mRNA levels of leptin, adiponectin, IL-6, and TNF-αPlasma leptin level decreased while plasma levels of other cytokines remained unchanged
16126 overweight males10 weeks of aerobic exercise (4-5 d/wk, 40 min each session, brisk walking mixed with light jogging, 55–70% VO2 max)Insulin sensitivity, indirect calorimetry, and plasma adiponectin levelAdiponectin levels rose by 260% after 2-3 bouts of exercise (1 week) without any change in BW
162Eight obese female students and 8 obese controls 7 mo exercise training (30–60 min/d, 4-5 d/wk 60–70% of HR-reserve)Adiponectin, leptin, hs-CRP, TNF-α, and lipid profileExercise decreased BW, body fat mass, hs-CRP, leptin, and TNF-α and increased HDL, VO2 max, and adiponectin

BW: body weight; FFA: free fatty acids; HR: heart rate; hs-CRP: high sensitivity C reactive protein; MHR: maximal heart rate; VO2 max: maximal oxygen consumption; wk: week.