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Journal of Diabetes Research
Volume 2014 (2014), Article ID 796565, 11 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/796565
Research Article

Beneficial Effects of Adiponectin on Periodontal Ligament Cells under Normal and Regenerative Conditions

1Experimental Dento-Maxillo-Facial Medicine, University of Bonn, 53111 Bonn, Germany
2Clinical Research Unit 208, University of Bonn, 53111 Bonn, Germany
3Department of Diagnosis and Surgery, School of Dentistry, UNESP, 14801-903 Araraquara, SP, Brazil
4Department of Periodontology, Operative and Preventive Dentistry, University of Bonn, 53111 Bonn, Germany
5Department of Orthodontics, University of Bonn, 53111 Bonn, Germany
6Department of Periodontology, Laboratory of Oral Microbiology, University of Bern, 3010 Bern, Switzerland

Received 16 April 2014; Revised 24 June 2014; Accepted 25 June 2014; Published 13 July 2014

Academic Editor: Ronald G. Tilton

Copyright © 2014 Marjan Nokhbehsaim et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Type 2 diabetes and obesity are increasing worldwide and linked to periodontitis, a chronic disease which is characterized by the irreversible destruction of the tooth-supporting tissues, that is, periodontium. The mechanisms underlying the association of diabetes mellitus and obesity with periodontal destruction and compromised periodontal healing are not well understood, but decreased plasma levels of adiponectin, as found in diabetic and obese individuals, might be a critical mechanistic link. The aim of this in vitro study was to examine the effects of adiponectin on periodontal ligament (PDL) cells under normal and regenerative conditions, and to study the regulation of adiponectin and its receptors in these cells. Adiponectin stimulated significantly the expression of growth factors and extracellular matrix, proliferation, and in vitro wound healing, reduced significantly the constitutive tumor necrosis factor-α expression, and caused a significant upregulation of its own expression. The beneficial actions of enamel matrix derivative on a number of PDL cell functions critical for periodontal regeneration were partially enhanced by adiponectin. The periodontopathogen Porphyromonas gingivalis inhibited the adiponectin expression and stimulated the expression of its receptors. In conclusion, reduced levels of adiponectin, as found in type 2 diabetes and obesity, may compromise periodontal health and healing.