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Journal of Diabetes Research
Volume 2014, Article ID 848659, 6 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/848659
Research Article

Peripheral Neuropathy and Tear Film Dysfunction in Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus

1Department of Ophthalmology, New Zealand National Eye Centre, Faculty of Medical and Health Sciences, University of Auckland, Private Bag 92019, Auckland 1142, New Zealand
2Department of Neurology, Faculty of Medical and Health Sciences, University of Auckland, Private Bag 92019, Auckland 1142, New Zealand
3Department of Medicine, Faculty of Medical and Health Sciences, University of Auckland, Private Bag 92019, Auckland 1142, New Zealand

Received 4 July 2014; Accepted 23 July 2014; Published 7 August 2014

Academic Editor: Nikolaos Papanas

Copyright © 2014 Stuti L. Misra et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Purpose. To compare tear film metrics in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM) and healthy controls and investigate the association between peripheral neuropathy and ocular surface quality. Methods. Dry eye symptoms were quantified in 53 patients with type 1 DM and 40 age-matched controls. Ocular examination included tear film lipid layer thickness grading, tear film stability and quantity measurement, and retinal photography. DM individuals additionally underwent a detailed neuropathy assessment. Results. Neither mean age nor dry eye symptom scores differed significantly between the DM and control groups ( and , resp.). Tear lipid thickness (), stability (), and quantity () were significantly lower in the DM group. Corneal sensitivity was also reduced in the DM group () and tear film stability was inversely associated with total neuropathy score (, ). Conclusion. The DM group exhibited significantly reduced tear film stability, secretion, and lipid layer quality relative to the age-matched control group. The negative correlation between tear film parameters and total neuropathy score suggests that ocular surface abnormalities occur in parallel with diabetic peripheral neuropathy.