Therapeutic Benefit of Extended Thymosin β4 Treatment Is Independent of Blood Glucose Level in Mice with Diabetic Peripheral Neuropathy
Effect of Tβ4 on Ang1 expression. Representative images of double immunofluorescent staining show that Ang1 immunoreactivity ((b), (c), (e), and (f) red, and arrows) was colocalized to NF-H positive axons ((a) and (c) green and arrows) and S100 positive Schwann cells ((d) and (f) green and arrows) in sciatic nerve tissue on the longitudinal section. Panels (g) to (i) show that Ang1 immunoreactivity ((h) and (i) green and arrows) was colocalized to NF-H positive cells ((g) and (i) red and arrows) in the cultured DRG neurons. Panel (j) shows Western blot analysis (j) of Ang1 in sciatic nerve tissue and β-actin was used as an internal control. Panel (k) shows quantitative data of the percentage of Ang1 immunoreactive DRG neurons cultured in normal glucose (N), high glucose (H), and high glucose with Tβ4 (+, 100 ng/mL). Panel (l) shows Elisa data of Ang1 levels in supernatants harvested from Schwann cells in normal glucose (N), normal glucose with Tβ4 (N + ), high glucose (H), and high glucose with Tβ4 (H + ). Bars in and μm and μm. versus the nondiabetic (DM) or normal glucose (N), versus diabetic mice treated with saline (DB) or high glucose (H), respectively. /group.