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Journal of Diabetes Research
Volume 2015 (2015), Article ID 191382, 9 pages
Research Article

Cross Talk between Lipid Metabolism and Inflammatory Markers in Patients with Diabetic Retinopathy

1NIHR Moorfields Biomedical Research Centre, London EC1V 2PD, UK
2King’s College Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, London SE5 9RS, UK
3Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, University of Athens, 11528 Athens, Greece
4King’s College London, London SE5 9RS, UK

Received 29 May 2015; Revised 11 July 2015; Accepted 14 July 2015

Academic Editor: Steven F. Abcouwer

Copyright © 2015 Roxanne Crosby-Nwaobi et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Purpose. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between metabolic and inflammatory markers in patients with diabetic retinopathy (DR). Methods. 208 adult patients with type 2 diabetes participated in this study and were categorized into (1) mild nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy (NPDR) without clinically significant macular edema (CSME), (2) NPDR with CSME, (3) proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR) without CSME, and (4) PDR with CSME. Variable serum metabolic markers were assessed using immunoassays. Multinomial logistic regression analysis was performed. Results. Diabetes duration and hypertension are the most significant risk factors for DR. Serum Apo-B and Apo-B/Apo-A ratio were the most significant metabolic risk factors for PDR and CSME. For every 0.1 g/L increase in Apo-B concentration, the risk of PDR and CSME increased by about 1.20 times. We also found that 10 pg/mL increase in serum TNF-α was associated with approximately 2-fold risk of PDR/CSME while an increase by 100 pg/mL in serum VEGF concentration correlated with CSME. Conclusions. In conclusion, it seems that there is a link between metabolic and inflammatory markers. Apo-B/Apo-A ratio should be evaluated as a reliable risk factor for PDR and CSME, while the role of increased systemic TNF-α and VEGF should be explored in CSME.