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Journal of Diabetes Research
Volume 2015, Article ID 354265, 10 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2015/354265
Research Article

Importance of Maternal Diabetes on the Chronological Deregulation of the Intrauterine Development: An Experimental Study in Rat

1Laboratorio de Investigación en Biología del Desarrollo y Teratogénesis Experimental, Hospital Infantil de México Federico Gómez, Dr. Márquez 162, 06720 Colonia Doctores, DF, Mexico
2Escuela Nacional de Ciencias Biológicas, Instituto Politécnico Nacional, Prolongación de Carpio y Plan de Ayala, 11340 Colonia Santo Tomas, DF, Mexico
3Unidad de Investigación Médica en Enfermedades Metabólicas, Centro Médico Nacional Siglo XXI, Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social, Avenida Cuauhtémoc 330, 06725 Colonia Doctores, DF, Mexico
4Dirección de Investigación, Hospital Infantil de México Federico Gómez, Dr. Márquez 162, 06720 Colonia Doctores, DF, Mexico

Received 6 October 2014; Revised 12 January 2015; Accepted 13 January 2015

Academic Editor: Daisuke Koya

Copyright © 2015 Marcela Salazar García et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

We investigated whether maternal diabetes induced in rats using streptozotocin (STZ) on Day 5 of pregnancy affects the intrauterine developmental timeline. A total of 30 pregnant Sprague-Dawley diabetic rats (DRs) and 20 control rats (CRs) were used to obtain 21-day fetuses (F21) and newborn (NB) pups. Gestational age, weight, and body size were recorded as were the maxillofacial morphometry and morphohistological characteristics of the limbs. In DRs, pregnancy continued for ∼1.7 days, and delivery occurred 23 days postcoitus (DPC). In this group, the number of pups was lower, and 13% had maxillofacial defects. F21 in the DR group had lower weights and were smaller; moreover, the morphological characteristics of the maxillofacial structures, derived from the neural crest, were discordant with their chronological gestational age, resembling 18- to 19-day-old fetuses. These deficiencies were counterbalanced in NB pups. We conclude that hyperglycemia, which results from maternal diabetes and precedes embryo implantation, deregulates the intrauterine developmental timeline, restricts embryo-fetal growth, and primarily delays the remodeling and maturation of the structures derived from neural crest cells.