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Journal of Diabetes Research
Volume 2015, Article ID 374178, 7 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2015/374178
Research Article

Vitamin D Deficiency Is Associated with the Presence and Severity of Diabetic Retinopathy in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

1Biomedical Research Institute of Lleida, University of Lleida, Rovira Roure 80, 25198 Lleida, Spain
2Biostatistics & Epidemiology Unit, Biomedical Research Institute of Lleida, University of Lleida, Rovira Roure 80, 25198 Lleida, Spain
3Department of Endocrinology & Nutrition, University Hospital Arnau de Vilanova, Rovira Roure 80, 25198 Lleida, Spain
4Department of Laboratory Medicine, University Hospital Arnau de Vilanova, Rovira Roure 80, 25198 Lleida, Spain
5Department of Ophthalmology, University Hospital Arnau de Vilanova, Rovira Roure 80, 25198 Lleida, Spain
6Department of Endocrinology & Nutrition, Health Sciences Research Institute and University Hospital Germans Trias i Pujol, Carretera Canyet S/N, 08916 Badalona, Spain

Received 14 December 2014; Revised 3 May 2015; Accepted 4 May 2015

Academic Editor: Patrizio Tatti

Copyright © 2015 Nuria Alcubierre et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

There is very few evidences on the role of vitamin D in the development of diabetic retinopathy. The aim of the current study was to explore whether there is an association of vitamin D status and diabetic retinopathy in type 2 diabetes. Two groups of patients were selected: 139 and 144 patients with and without retinopathy, respectively, as assessed by an experienced ophthalmologist. Subjects with advanced late diabetic complications were excluded to avoid confounding biases. 25-Hydroxy-vitamin D3 (25(OH)D) concentrations and vitamin D deficiency were associated with the presence of diabetic retinopathy. Additionally, patients with more advanced stages of retinopathy (grades 2–4) had lower concentrations of 25(OH)D and were more frequently vitamin D deficient as compared with patients not carrying this eye complication. In conclusion, our study confirms the association of vitamin D deficiency with the presence and severity of diabetic retinopathy in type 2 diabetes. Further experimental and prospective studies on this issue are clearly warranted.