Research Article

Vitamin D Deficiency Is Associated with the Presence and Severity of Diabetic Retinopathy in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

Table 4

Results of the analysis of serum 25(OH)D concentrations and frequency of vitamin D deficiency according to the severity of diabetic retinopathy.

Vitamin D statusNo DRDR: grade 1DR: grades 2–4 values
Grade 1 versus no DRGrades 2–4 versus no DR

25 (OH)D (ng/mL)20.5 (8.1)20 ()18.6 ()0.520.02
Vitamin D deficiency (<20 ng/dL)73 (50.7%)35 (55.6%)51 (67.1%)0.620.03

Data are mean ± standard deviation or (%), as needed. DR: diabetic retinopathy; 25(OH)D: 25-hydroxy-vitamin D3.