Maternal Hyperglycemia Directly and Rapidly Induces Cardiac Septal Overgrowth in Fetal Rats
Cardiac septal width and myocardial proliferation. (a) Fetal cardiac septal width, as measured by echocardiograph, among left-sided (i.e., hyperglycemia infused) and right-sided (control) fetuses. Differing colors indicate different dams. by resampling, dams, = 26, 28 fetuses per side. (b) The ratio of cardiac septal width to fetal weight. by -test, = 4, 9 fetuses per side, 2 dams. (c) Hematoxylin and eosin stained fetal hearts from the left (hyperglycemia) and right (control) uterine horns. (d) Myocardial proliferation as evidenced by immunofluorescence detection of ki67 (green) and DAPI (blue). Representative images from the interventricular septal region are shown. (e) The percentage of ki67 positivity among nuclei in the fetal myocardium. by resampling, dams, >500 nuclei from 3 myocardial regions (left, right, septal ventriculum) analyzed per fetus. = 33, 36 fetuses per side.