Maternal Hyperglycemia Directly and Rapidly Induces Cardiac Septal Overgrowth in Fetal Rats
Myocardial protein levels in the heart from left (hyperglycemia exposed) and right (control) fetuses. (a) Western blot of phosphokinase and total kinase levels (AKT, ERK, p38, and JNK) and glucose transporter 4 (Glut4). (b) Quantitation of Western blot results. dams, 6 fetuses per side. , . (c) Quantitation of Western blot results. dams and fetuses/side for phospho-p38, phospho-ERK, insulin stimulated phospho-AKT, phospho-JNK normalized to total, and IGF-1, respectively. . (a-b) Dams infused with left uterine artery hyperglycemia on gestational days 19-20. (c) Dams infused with left uterine artery hyperglycemia on gestational days 18–20.