Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Journal of Diabetes Research
Volume 2015, Article ID 543818, 11 pages
Research Article

Altered Expression of NF-κB and SP1 after Exposure to Advanced Glycation End-Products and Effects of Neurotrophic Factors in AGEs Exposed Rat Retinas

Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Science, Chiba University Graduate School of Medicine, Inohana 1-8-1, Chuo-ku, Chiba, Chiba Prefecture 260-8670, Japan

Received 23 October 2014; Revised 4 April 2015; Accepted 4 April 2015

Academic Editor: Secundino Cigarran

Copyright © 2015 Guzel Bikbova et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


To determine the effect of advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) on neurite regeneration, and also to determine the regenerative effects of different neurotrophic factors (NTFs) on rat retinal explants, the retinas of SD rats were cultured in three-dimensional collagen gels and incubated in 6 types of media: (1) serum-free control culture media; (2) 100 μg/mL AGEs-BSA media; (3) AGEs-BSA + 100 ng/mL neurotrophin-4 (NT-4) media; (4) AGEs-BSA + 100 ng/mL hepatocyte growth factor media; (5) AGEs-BSA + 100 ng/mL glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor media; or (6) AGEs-BSA + 100 µM tauroursodeoxycholic acid media. After 7 days, the number of regenerating neurites was counted. The explants were immunostained for nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) and specificity protein 1 (SP1). Statistical analyses were performed by one-way ANOVA. In retinas incubated with AGEs, the numbers of neurites were fewer than in control. All of the NTFs increased the number of neurites, and the increase was more significant in the NT-4 group. The number of NF-κB and SP1 immunopositive cells was higher in retinas exposed to AGEs than in control. All of the NTFs decreased the number of NF-κB immunopositive cells but did not significantly affect SP1 expression. These results demonstrate the potential of the NTFs as axoprotectants in AGEs exposed retinal neurons.