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Journal of Diabetes Research
Volume 2015, Article ID 697010, 16 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2015/697010
Review Article

Diabetic Kidney Disease: Pathophysiology and Therapeutic Targets

Division of Nephrology, Johns Hopkins University, 1830 E. Monument Street, Suite 416, Baltimore, MD 21287, USA

Received 17 December 2014; Accepted 17 April 2015

Academic Editor: Christian Wadsack

Copyright © 2015 Stephanie Toth-Manikowski and Mohamed G. Atta. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Diabetes is a worldwide epidemic that has led to a rise in diabetic kidney disease (DKD). Over the past two decades, there has been significant clarification of the various pathways implicated in the pathogenesis of DKD. Nonetheless, very little has changed in the way clinicians manage patients with this disorder. Indeed, treatment is primarily centered on controlling hyperglycemia and hypertension and inhibiting the renin-angiotensin system. The purpose of this review is to describe the current understanding of how the hemodynamic, metabolic, inflammatory, and alternative pathways are all entangled in pathogenesis of DKD and detail the various therapeutic targets that may one day play a role in quelling this epidemic.