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Journal of Diabetes Research
Volume 2015, Article ID 783296, 8 pages
Research Article

Healthy Chilean Adolescents with HOMA-IR 2.6 Have Increased Cardiometabolic Risk: Association with Genetic, Biological, and Environmental Factors

1Institute of Nutrition and Food Technology, University of Chile, Avenida El Líbano 5524, Macul, 7840390 Santiago, Chile
2Division of Child Development and Community Health, University of California, San Diego, 9500 Gilman Drive, MC 0927, La Jolla, San Diego, CA 92093-0927, USA

Received 24 November 2014; Revised 6 January 2015; Accepted 7 January 2015

Academic Editor: Joseph Fomusi Ndisang

Copyright © 2015 R. Burrows et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Objective. To determine the optimal cutoff of the homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) for diagnosis of the metabolic syndrome (MetS) in adolescents and examine whether insulin resistance (IR), determined by this method, was related to genetic, biological, and environmental factors. Methods. In 667 adolescents (16.8 ± 0.3 y), BMI, waist circumference, glucose, insulin, adiponectin, diet, and physical activity were measured. Fat and fat-free mass were assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Family history of type 2 diabetes (FHDM) was reported. We determined the optimal cutoff of HOMA-IR to diagnose MetS (IDF criteria) using ROC analysis. IR was defined as HOMA-IR values above the cutoff. We tested the influence of genetic, biological, and environmental factors on IR using logistic regression analyses. Results. Of the participants, 16% were obese and 9.4 % met criteria for MetS. The optimal cutoff for MetS diagnosis was a HOMA-IR value of 2.6. Based on this value, 16.3% of participants had IR. Adolescents with IR had a significantly higher prevalence of obesity, abdominal obesity, fasting hyperglycemia, and MetS compared to those who were not IR. FHDM, sarcopenia, obesity, and low adiponectin significantly increased the risk of IR. Conclusions. In adolescents, HOMA-IR ≥ 2.6 was associated with greater cardiometabolic risk.