Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Journal of Diabetes Research
Volume 2015, Article ID 847854, 7 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2015/847854
Research Article

Automated Quantification of Neuropad Improves Its Diagnostic Ability in Patients with Diabetic Neuropathy

1Research Division, Weill Cornell Medical College in Qatar, Qatar Foundation, P.O. Box 24144, Education City, Doha, Qatar
2Institute of Human Development, Centre for Endocrinology & Diabetes, Faculty of Medical and Human Sciences, University of Manchester and NIHR/Wellcome Trust Clinical Research Facility, Manchester M13 9NT, UK
3Roke Manor Research Ltd, Old Salisbury Lane, Romsey, Hampshire SO51 0ZN, UK

Received 18 January 2015; Accepted 27 April 2015

Academic Editor: Andrea Flex

Copyright © 2015 Georgios Ponirakis et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. A. J. M. Boulton, A. I. Vinik, J. C. Arezzo et al., “Diabetic neuropathies: a statement by the American Diabetes Association,” Diabetes Care, vol. 28, no. 4, pp. 956–962, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. S. Tesfaye, A. J. Boulton, P. J. Dyck et al., “Diabetic neuropathies: update on definitions, diagnostic criteria, estimation of severity, and treatments,” Diabetes Care, vol. 33, no. 10, pp. 2285–2293, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  3. R. A. Malik, A. Veves, S. Tesfaye et al., “Small fibre neuropathy: role in the diagnosis of diabetic sensorimotor polyneuropathy,” Diabetes/Metabolism Research and Reviews, vol. 27, no. 7, pp. 678–684, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. C. A. Abbott, A. L. Carrington, H. Ashe et al., “The North-West Diabetes Foot Care Study: incidence of, and risk factors for, new diabetic foot ulceration in a community-based patient cohort,” Diabetic Medicine, vol. 19, no. 5, pp. 377–384, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. J. D. England, G. S. Gronseth, G. Franklin et al., “Practice Parameter: evaluation of distal symmetric polyneuropathy: role of autonomic testing, nerve biopsy, and skin biopsy (an evidence-based review): report of the American Academy of Neurology, American Association of Neuromuscular and Electrodiagnostic Medicine, and American Academy of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation,” Neurology, vol. 72, no. 2, pp. 177–184, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. R. A. Malik, P. Kallinikos, C. A. Abbott et al., “Corneal confocal microscopy: a non-invasive surrogate of nerve fibre damage and repair in diabetic patients,” Diabetologia, vol. 46, no. 5, pp. 683–688, 2003. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. P. Thaisetthawatkul, J. A. M. Fernandes Filho, and D. N. Herrmann, “Contribution of QSART to the diagnosis of small fiber neuropathy,” Muscle & Nerve, vol. 48, no. 6, pp. 883–888, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. A. G. Smith, M. Lessard, S. Reyna, M. Doudova, and J. R. Singleton, “The diagnostic utility of Sudoscan for distal symmetric peripheral neuropathy,” Journal of Diabetes and its Complications, vol. 28, pp. 511–516, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. C. Quattrini, M. Jeziorska, M. Tavakoli, P. Begum, A. J. M. Boulton, and R. A. Malik, “The Neuropad test: a visual indicator test for human diabetic neuropathy,” Diabetologia, vol. 51, no. 6, pp. 1046–1050, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. V. Spallone, R. Morganti, M. Siampli et al., “Neuropad as a diagnostic tool for diabetic autonomic and sensorimotor neuropathy,” Diabetic Medicine, vol. 26, no. 7, pp. 686–692, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. S. Liatis, K. Marinou, N. Tentolouris, S. Pagoni, and N. Katsilambros, “Usefulness of a new indicator test for the diagnosis of peripheral and autonomic neuropathy in patients with diabetes mellitus,” Diabetic Medicine, vol. 24, no. 12, pp. 1375–1380, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. N. Papanas, K. Papatheodorou, D. Papazoglou, C. Monastiriotis, D. Christakidis, and E. Maltezos, “A comparison of the new indicator test for sudomotor function (Neuropad) with the vibration perception threshold and the clinical examination in the diagnosis of peripheral neuropathy in subjects with type 2 diabetes,” Experimental and Clinical Endocrinology and Diabetes, vol. 116, no. 2, pp. 135–138, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. N. Papanas, A. J. M. Boulton, R. A. Malik et al., “A simple new non-invasive sweat indicator test for the diagnosis of diabetic neuropathy,” Diabetic Medicine, vol. 30, no. 5, pp. 525–534, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. G. Ponirakis, I. N. Petropoulos, H. Fadavi et al., “The diagnostic accuracy of Neuropad for assessing large and small fibre diabetic neuropathy,” Diabetic Medicine, vol. 31, no. 12, pp. 1673–1680, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  15. N. Papanas, K. Papatheodorou, D. Papazoglou, S. Kotsiou, and E. Maltezos, “A prospective study on the use of the indicator test Neuropad for the early diagnosis of peripheral neuropathy in type 2 diabetes,” Experimental and Clinical Endocrinology & Diabetes, vol. 119, no. 2, pp. 122–125, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. N. Papanas, P. Paschos, D. Papazoglou et al., “Accuracy of the neuropad test for the diagnosis of distal symmetric polyneuropathy in type 2 diabetes,” Diabetes Care, vol. 34, no. 6, pp. 1378–1382, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. D. Ziegler, N. Papanas, and M. Roden, “Neuropad: evaluation of three cut-off points of sudomotor dysfunction for early detection of polyneuropathy in recently diagnosed diabetes,” Diabetic Medicine, vol. 28, no. 11, pp. 1412–1415, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. V. E. Sokolov, S. A. Shabadash, and T. I. Zelikina, “Innervation of eccrine sweat glands,” Biology bulletin of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR, vol. 7, no. 5, pp. 331–346, 1980. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. S. Orlov, V. Bril, A. Orszag, and B. A. Perkins, “Heart rate variability and sensorimotor polyneuropathy in type 1 diabetes,” Diabetes Care, vol. 35, no. 4, pp. 809–816, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. H. Fruhstorfer, E.-L. Harju, and U. F. Lindblom, “The significance of A-delta and C fibres for the perception of synthetic heat,” European Journal of Pain, vol. 7, no. 1, pp. 63–71, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. M. A. Dabbah, J. Graham, I. N. Petropoulos, M. Tavakoli, and R. A. Malik, “Automatic analysis of diabetic peripheral neuropathy using multi-scale quantitative morphology of nerve fibres in corneal confocal microscopy imaging,” Medical Image Analysis, vol. 15, no. 5, pp. 738–747, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. M. J. Young, A. J. M. Boulton, A. F. Macleod, D. R. R. Williams, and P. H. Sonksen, “A multicentre study of the prevalence of diabetic peripheral neuropathy in the United Kingdom hospital clinic population,” Diabetologia, vol. 36, no. 2, pp. 150–154, 1993. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. S. Tesfaye, A. J. Boulton, P. J. Dyck et al., “Diabetic neuropathies: update on definitions, diagnostic criteria, estimation of severity, and treatments,” Diabetes Care, vol. 33, no. 10, pp. 2285–2293, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  24. J. A. Hanley and B. J. McNeil, “The meaning and use of the area under a receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve,” Radiology, vol. 143, no. 1, pp. 29–36, 1982. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. G. A. Sivaskandarajah, E. M. Halpern, L. E. Lovblom et al., “Structure-function relationship between corneal nerves and conventional small-fiber tests in type 1 diabetes,” Diabetes Care, vol. 36, no. 9, pp. 2748–2755, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. M. Tavakoli, C. Quattrini, C. Abbott et al., “Corneal confocal microscopy: a novel noninvasive test to diagnose and stratify the severity of human diabetic neuropathy,” Diabetes Care, vol. 33, no. 8, pp. 1792–1797, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus