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Journal of Diabetes Research
Volume 2015 (2015), Article ID 924539, 10 pages
Research Article

Impact of Gender on the Association of Epicardial Fat Thickness, Obesity, and Circadian Blood Pressure Pattern in Hypertensive Patients

Division of Cardiology, Department of Internal Medicine, Kosin University College of Medicine, Busan 602-702, Republic of Korea

Received 15 December 2014; Revised 6 April 2015; Accepted 15 April 2015

Academic Editor: Marcus Pezzolesi

Copyright © 2015 In Kyoung Shim et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


This study aimed to investigate the effects of gender on the association between epicardial fat thickness (EFT) and circadian blood pressure (BP) changes in patients with recently diagnosed essential hypertension (EH). A total of 441 patients with EH (male/female: 236/205, mean age: 50.7 ± 13.8) and 83 control patients underwent 24-hour ambulatory BP monitoring and echocardiography. Obese EH patients had higher circadian BP profile with BP variability, wall thickness, and left ventricular mass than nonobese EH patients and controls (all p’s ) without gender differences. EFT was higher in female than in male patients (7.0 ± 2.5 versus 5.9 ± 2.2 mm, ) and higher in the obese female EH group (7.5 ± 2.6 mm) than in the control (6.4 ± 2.8 mm) or nonobese EH group (6.7 ± 2.8 mm) among women, whereas EFT did not vary among males (5.9 ± 1.9 versus 6.0 ± 2.7 versus 5.9 ± 2.4 mm, ). Multivariate logistic regression analysis demonstrated that the 24-hour mean BP variability was associated with SBP () and EFT () in female patients, but not in male patients. The relationships among circadian BP variability, obesity, and EFT were affected by gender in different manners. EFT may be a more valuable parameter in the evaluation of BP severity and obesity in women than in men.