Table 1: Clinical characteristics and relative serum factors concentrations of type 2 diabetes patients and healthy controls.

VariableControlNormoalbuminuricMicroalbuminuricMacroalbuminuric

(M/F)224 (110/114)201 (99/102)171 (88/83)130 (69/61)
Age (years)48.32 ± 12.3049.78 ± 8.0250.48 ± 11.6649.54 ± 10.75
Duration (years)7.71 ± 5.0010.22 ± 6.7610.87 ± 5.21
BMI (Kg/m2)24.39 ± 2.7624.59 ± 3.0324.94 ± 3.2024.84 ± 2.22
FBG (mmol/L)5.10 ± 0.3310.12 ± 1.7411.25 ± 2.8810.49 ± 4.15
SBP (mmHg)124.66 ± 6.10125.46 ± 6.15125.05 ± 6.80125.80 ± 5.93
DBP (mmHg)74.94 ± 6.2175.77 ± 6.0374.85 ± 6.5376.01 ± 6.15
HbA1c (%)5.24 ± 0.278.39 ± 1.678.75 ± 1.808.93 ± 2.10
HDL (mmol/L)1.14 ± 0.201.10 ± 0.311.13 ± 0.251.14 ± 0.27
LDL (mmol/L)2.54 ± 0.453.33 ± 0.583.48 ± 0.913.67 ± 1.18
TC (mmol/L)4.01 ± 0.545.00 ± 0.745.20 ± 1.105.62 ± 1.06
TG (mmol/L)1.21 ± 0.181.73 ± 0.772.46 ± 1.482.85 ± 1.85
UA (mmol/L)287.14 ± 27.21268.37 ± 73.60301.88 ± 72.42333.34 ± 42.44
Scr (μmol/L)56.83 ± 9.0559.33 ± 9.6262.69 ± 9.6668.29 ± 10.51
BUN (mmol/L)4.74 ± 1.035.02 ± 0.865.90 ± 0.886.36 ± 1.01
eGFR (mL/min/1.73 m2)116.92 (112.86~120.99)125.10 (120.72~129.49)114.99 (110.64~119.35)91.98 (88.53~95.44)
Fg (g/L)2.93 ± 0.773.13 ± 0.483.48 ± 1.023.67 ± 0.31
Ln(ACR)1.72 ± 0.162.38 ± 0.454.19 ± 0.696.56 ± 0.55
FINS (mIU/L)6.61 (6.47–6.75)9.46 (8.92–10.00)10.64 (9.65–11.63)9.59 (8.70–10.48)
HOMA-IR1.53 (1.49–6.75)4.28 (3.83–4.72)5.45 (4.82–6.09)4.48 (3.95–5.02)
HIF-1α (pg/mL)16.78 ± 6.7324.38 ± 7.2430.35 ± 4.9333.22 ± 3.89
VEGF (pg/mL)107.60 ± 28.49130.55 ± 19.48144.34 ± 23.70181.28 ± 21.97
vWf (U/L)372.62 ± 57.56481.85 ± 62.94598.49 ± 55.26691.63 ± 64.35
IGF-1 (ng/mL)111.42 ± 49.25149.39 ± 45.10194.50 ± 44.34236.87 ± 46.22
25(OH)VD3 (ng/mL)17.36 ± 6.2314.86 ± 6.1912.75 ± 5.7410.61 ± 5.04

Data are means ± SD for Gaussian variables and median (interquartile range) for non-Gaussian variables.
Note. Normoalbuminuric, Microalbuminuric, and Macroalbuminuric versus Control, , ; Microalbuminuric and Macroalbuminuric versus Normoalbuminuric, , ; Macroalbuminuric versus Microalbuminuric, , .
BMI: body mass index; FBG: fasting blood glucose; SBP: systolic blood pressure; DBP: diastolic blood pressure; HbA1c: glycated hemoglobin; HDL: high-density lipoprotein; LDL: low-density lipoprotein; TC: cholesterol; TG: triglyceride; UA: uric acid; Scr: serum creatinine; BUN: blood urea nitrogen; eGFR: estimated glomerular filtration rate; Fg: fibrinogen; Ln(ACR): Ln Koc of urinary albumin to creatinine ratio; FINS: fasting insulin; HOMA-IR: HOMA insulin resistance index; HIF-1α: hypoxia-inducible factor-1α; VEGF: vascular endothelial growth factor; vWf: von Willebrand factor; IGF-1: insulin-like growth factor-1; 25(OH)VD3: 25-hydroxy vitamin D3.