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Journal of Diabetes Research
Volume 2016, Article ID 2356870, 9 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2016/2356870
Research Article

An Alteration of Lymphocytes Subpopulations and Immunoglobulins Levels in Patients with Diabetic Foot Ulcers Infected Particularly by Resistant Pathogens

1Diabetes Centre, Institute for Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Prague, Czech Republic
2Diabetes Unit, Derby Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Derby, UK
3Department of Clinical and Transplant Immunology, Institute for Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Prague, Czech Republic
4Department of Clinical Biochemistry, Institute for Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Prague, Czech Republic
5Department of Clinical Microbiology, Institute for Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Prague, Czech Republic

Received 15 May 2016; Revised 30 September 2016; Accepted 17 October 2016

Academic Editor: Eusebio Chiefari

Copyright © 2016 Vladimíra Fejfarová et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

The aim of our study was to analyse immune abnormalities in patients with chronic infected diabetic foot ulcers (DFUs) especially those infected by resistant microorganisms. Methods. 68 patients treated in our foot clinic for infected chronic DFUs with 34 matched diabetic controls were studied. Patients with infected DFUs were subdivided into two subgroups according to the antibiotic sensitivity of causal pathogen: subgroup S infected by sensitive () and subgroup R by resistant pathogens (). Selected immunological markers were compared between the study groups and subgroups. Results. Patients with infected chronic DFUs had, in comparison with diabetic controls, significantly reduced percentages () and total numbers of lymphocytes () involving B lymphocytes (), CD4+ (), and CD8+ T cells () and their naive and memory effector cells. Higher levels of IgG () including IgG1 () and IgG3 () were found in patients with DFUs compared to diabetic controls. Serum levels of immunoglobulin subclasses IgG2 and IgG3 correlated negatively with metabolic control (). A trend towards an increased frequency of IgG2 deficiency was found in patients with DFUs compared to diabetic controls (22% versus 15%; NS). Subgroup R revealed lower levels of immunoglobulins, especially of IgG4 () in contrast to patients infected by sensitive bacteria. The innate immunity did not differ significantly between the study groups. Conclusion. Our study showed changes mainly in the adaptive immune system represented by low levels of lymphocyte subpopulations and their memory effector cells, and also changes in humoral immunity in patients with DFUs, even those infected by resistant pathogens, in comparison with diabetic controls.