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Journal of Diabetes Research
Volume 2016 (2016), Article ID 2684674, 10 pages
Research Article

Danish Nationwide Data Reveal a Link between Diabetes Mellitus, Diabetic Retinopathy, and Glaucoma

1Department of Neuroscience and Pharmacology, University of Copenhagen, Blegdamsvej 3, 2200 Copenhagen, Denmark
2Center for Healthy Aging, University of Copenhagen, Blegdamsvej 3, 2200 Copenhagen, Denmark
3Department of Public Health, University of Szeged, Dóm Tér 10, Szeged 6720, Hungary
4Akershus University Hospital and Institute of Clinical Medicine, University of Oslo, Campus Ahus, 1478 Lørenskog, Norway
5Aalborg University Hospital, Department of Health, Science and Technology, Niels Jernes Vej 12, 9220 Aalborg, Denmark
6Zealand University Hospital, Department of Ophthalmology, Vestermarksvej 23, 4000 Roskilde, Denmark

Received 24 June 2016; Revised 7 September 2016; Accepted 18 September 2016

Academic Editor: Daniel Petrovič

Copyright © 2016 Anna Horwitz et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Aims. To determine the association between treatment against diabetes mellitus (DM) and treatment with antiglaucomatous drugs in the entire Danish population and to investigate the comorbidity between DM and its complications with antiglaucomatous treatment. Methods. Retrospective nationwide cohort study with data over a 16-year follow-up period. The National Danish Registry of Medicinal Products Statistics was used to identify all claimed prescriptions for antiglaucomatous medication and DM drugs. ICD-10 classifications were furthermore used to identify comorbidities between antiglaucomatous medication and the DM complications, diabetic retinopathy (DR), and nephropathy. Results. A total of 6,343,747 individuals in the period between 1996 and 2012 were analyzed. The overall incidence rate of new-onset glaucoma patients was 0.07 per 1000 person-years for the reference population compared to 36 per 1000 person-years for all diagnosed DM cases. Patients treated with DM drugs had about two times higher relative risk of glaucoma, when adjusting for a range of factors. The presence of DR alone or in combination with nephropathy increased the risk of glaucoma. Conclusions. The present study reports a strong association between DM and onset of glaucoma treatment in the entire Danish population.