Table 1: Clinical features of patients according to Fatty Liver Index.

AllFatty Liver Index
<3030–59≥60
(15.1%) (25.2%) (59.6%)

Male gender47.6%41.0%48.3%49.0%
Age (years)65 ± 1266 ± 1367 ± 1164 ± 11
Known duration of diabetes (years)9 ± 910 ± 109 ± 98 ± 9
BMI (body mass index) (Kg/m2)30 ± 624 ± 227 ± 333 ± 5
Waist circumference (cm)103 ± 1387 ± 796 ± 6110 ± 11
GGT (UI/L)39 ± 45 19 ± 14 28 ± 26 48 ± 52
Triglycerides (mg/dL) 145 ± 99 88 ± 35 117 ± 50 172 ± 115
Fatty Liver Index64 ± 2718 ± 846 ± 984 ± 12
AST (UI/L) 24 ± 1721 ± 1223 ± 1726 ± 19
AST > 38 UI/L8.4%3.6%5.3%10.9%
ALT (UI/L)29 ± 2322 ± 1425 ± 2132 ± 26
ALT > 41 UI/L if male or >31 UI/L if female20.3%8.7%12.8%26.4%
ALT > 30 UI/L if male or >9 UI/L if female46.7%32.0%37.1%54.4%
Serum creatinine (mg/dL)0.95 ± 0.510.89 ± 0.500.94 ± 0.510.97 ± 0.50
eGFR (mL/min/1.73 m2)79 ± 2281 ± 2078 ± 2178 ± 22
eGFR < 60 mL/min/1.73 m219.7%15.0%19%21.2%
Albuminuria26.8%20.2%23.4%30.0%
HbA1c (% and mmol/mol)7.5 (58) ± 1.67.3 (56) ± 1.67.3 (56) ± 1.57.6 (60) ± 1.7
HbA1c ≥ 7% (53 mmol/mol)55.7%49.0%50.1%59.8%
Total cholesterol (mg/dL)184 ± 42178 ± 38180 ± 40188 ± 43
HDL-C (mg/dL)49 ± 1458 ± 1651 ± 1446 ± 13
HDL-C < 40 if male or <50 mg/dL if female40.4%21.4%32.6%48.5%
LDL-C (mg/dL)107 ± 36103 ± 33106 ± 34108 ± 37
LDL-C ≥ 100 mg/dL54.7%50.1%53.6%56.3%
Systolic blood pressure (mmHg) 138 ± 19134 ± 20137 ± 19139 ± 19
Diastolic blood pressure (mmHg)79 ± 1076 ± 978 ± 1080 ± 10
Blood pressure ≥ 140/85 mmHg55.6%46.2%53.1%59.1%
Pulse pressure (mmHg) 59 ± 1658 ± 1759 ± 1759 ± 16
score27 ± 929 ± 828 ± 926 ± 9
Retinopathy12.0%12.5%12.1%11.8%
Smokers16.4%15.6%16.0%16.9%
FIB-4 > 3.25 (%)4.4%
Lipid lowering treatment54.2%49.6%55.5%54.8%
Treatment with statins 49.1%47.6%51.6%48.4%
Treatment with fibrates3.4%1.3%2.4%4.3%
Antihypertensive treatment71.6%57.7%69.7%75.9%
Treatment with ACE-Is/ARBs59.8%47.0%57.3%64.1%
Aspirin 34.4%31.8%35.6%34.6%
Diabetes treatment:
(i) Diet8.2%7.0%5.9%
(ii) Insulin and metformin or sulfonamides12.9%10.4%11.2%14.2%
(iii) Metformin and sulfonamides31.7%28.9%32.8%31.9%
(iv) Metformin25.1%20.4%24.1%26.6%
(v) Sulfonamides8.0%11.9%9.3%6.4%
(vi) Other drugs1.3%1.4%1.4%1.2%
(vii) Thiazolidinediones3.5%3.0%3.4%3.6%
(viii) Dipeptidyl peptidase 4 inhibitors2.2%2.2%2.3%2.2%

Mean ± standard deviation or percentage of patients. ACE-Is, angiotensin converting enzyme-inhibitors; ARBs, Angiotensin Receptor Blockers; ALT, alanine transaminase; AST, aspartate aminotransferase; BMI, body mass index; eGFR, estimated glomerular filtration rate; GGT, gamma-glutamyltransferase; HDL-C, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol; LDL-C, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Missing data: AST in 1187 (1.3%), ALT in 1266 (1.3%), serum creatinine and eGFR in 3280 (3.5%), albuminuria in 15901 (16.8%), total cholesterol in 92 (0.1%), HDL-C (mg/dL) in 168 (0.2%), and smoking status in 101 (0.1%). The FIB-4 was calculable in 15882 (40.8%) patients with complete ALT, AST, and platelet count. The level of statistical significance for differences between groups is indicated by for FLI 30–59 versus FLI < 30, for FLI ≥ 60 versus FLI < 30, and for FLI ≥ 60 versus FLI 30–59.
: , : , : , and —: n.s.