Table 3: Relative risk ratios adjusted for gender, age, and duration of diabetes for the overall population.

AllFatty Liver Index RRR for FLI 30–59% RRR for FLI ≥ 60%
<3030–59≥60

AST (UI/L)24 ± 1621 ± 1222 ± 1426 ± 181.10 (1.06–1.15)1.35 (1.28–1.42)
AST > 38 UI/L8.3%3.2%4.5%11.2%1.42 (1.24–1.61)3.53 (3.04–4.09)
ALT (UI/L)28 ± 2221 ± 1424 ± 1832 ± 251.26 (1.21–1.31)1.56 (1.48–1.66)
ALT > 41 UI/L (M) or >31 UI/L (F)19.1%7.8%11.4%25.0%1.62 (1.49–1.76)3.88 (3.44–4.36)
ALT > 30 UI/L (M) or >19 UI/L (F)43.4%28.7%33.1%51.3%1.41 (1.33–1.49)2.96 (2.71–3.23)
Serum creatinine (mg/dL)0.97 ± 0.510.90 ± 0.450.96 ± 0.490.99 ± 0.531.60 (1.40–1.84)2.16 (1.82–2.58)
eGFR (mL/min/1.73 m2)78 ± 2180 ± 2078 ± 2077 ± 220.91 (0.90–0.92)0.82 (0.80–0.83)
eGFR< 60 mL/min/1.73 m219.8%15.1%19.1%21.3%1.41 (1.33–1.48)2.15 (2.03–2.28)
Albuminuria28.2%21.4%24.9%31.2%1.20 (1.09–1.31)1.72 (1.46–2.04)
HbA1c (% and mmol/mol)7.5 (58) ± 1.67.2 (55) ± 1.57.3 (56) ± 1.57.6 (60) ± 1.71.04 (1.01–1.07)1.21 (1.15–1.27)
HbA1c ≥ 7% (53 mmol/mol)55.1%48.2%50.2%58.8%1.16 (1.10–1.23)1.77 (1.64–1.91)
Total cholesterol (mg/dL)185 ± 41178 ± 38180 ± 39188 ± 431.04 (1.03–1.05)1.13 (1.12–1.14)
HDL-C (mg/dL)50 ± 1458 ± 1652 ± 1447 ± 130.79 (0.77–0.80)0.60 (0.58–0.62)
HDL-C < 40 (male); <50 mg/dL (female)36.6%19.5%29.5%43.7%1.84 (1.74–1.95)3.43 (3.19–3.68)
LDL-C (mg/dL)107 ± 36104 ± 33106 ± 34109 ± 371.05 (1.04–1.07)1.07 (1.06–1.09)
LDL-C ≥ 100 mg/dL55.3%51.3%54.2%56.8%1.15 (1.09–1.21)1.20 (1.14–1.27)
Systolic blood pressure (mmHg)139 ± 19135 ± 20138 ± 19140 ± 191.17 (1.14–1.20)1.37 (1.31–1.43)
Diastolic blood pressure (mmHg)79 ± 1076 ± 978 ± 1080 ± 101.20 (1.17–1.24)1.47 (1.41–1.54)
Blood pressure ≥ 140/85 mmHg58.0%48.7%55.4%61.3%1.31 (1.25–1.38)1.76 (1.67–1.87)
Pulse pressure (mmHg)60 ± 1759 ± 1760 ± 1760 ± 161.04 (1.02–1.05)1.08 (1.05–1.10)
score26 ± 928 ± 827 ± 926 ± 90.85 (0.82–0.87)0.67 (0.64–0.69)
Retinopathy11.8%12.5%12.3%11.5%1.08 (1.00–1.17)1.16 (1.07–1.26)
Smokers18.1%17.6%17.6%18.3%0.97 (0.90–1.03)0.87 (0.82–0.93)
Alcohol45.2%41.9%46.8%45.4%1.05 (0.98–1.13)1.00 (0.93–0.07)

Mean ± standard deviation or percentage of patients. Relative risk ratios (RRR) with 95% confidence interval. ALT, alanine transaminase; AST, aspartate aminotransferase; eGFR, estimated glomerular filtration rate; HDL-C, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol; and LDL-C, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Missing data: AST in 4151 (4.4%), ALT in 3587 (3.8%), serum creatinine and eGFR in 8017 (8.5%), albuminuria in 43247 (45.7%), total cholesterol (mg/dL) in 211 (0.2%), HDL-C (mg/dL) in 440 (0.5%), smoking status in 30189 (31.9%), and alcohol in 32742 (34.6%). The values are referring to relative risk ratios for FLI 30–59 () or FLI ≥ 60 ( and ) at multinomial logistic regression analysis correcting for gender, age, and duration of diabetes with patients with FLI < 30 ( and ) and FLI 30–59 () as reference category. RRR for continuous variables by 10 units’ increase in AST, ALT, eGFR, HDL-C, diastolic blood pressure, pulse pressure, and Score, by 20 units for total cholesterol, LDL-C, and systolic blood pressure, and by one unit otherwise.
: , : , : , and : n.s.