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Journal of Diabetes Research
Volume 2016 (2016), Article ID 4065382, 11 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2016/4065382
Review Article

Histone Acetylation and Its Modifiers in the Pathogenesis of Diabetic Nephropathy

Department of Nephrology, The Second Hospital of Jilin University, Changchun 130041, China

Received 1 April 2016; Accepted 17 May 2016

Academic Editor: Konstantinos Papatheodorou

Copyright © 2016 Xiaoxia Li et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Diabetic nephropathy (DN) remains a leading cause of mortality worldwide despite advances in its prevention and management. A comprehensive understanding of factors contributing to DN is required to develop more effective therapeutic options. It is becoming more evident that histone acetylation (HAc), as one of the epigenetic mechanisms, is thought to be associated with the etiology of diabetic vascular complications such as diabetic retinopathy (DR), diabetic cardiomyopathy (DCM), and DN. Histone acetylases (HATs) and histone deacetylases (HDACs) are the well-known regulators of reversible acetylation in the amino-terminal domains of histone and nonhistone proteins. In DN, however, the roles of histone acetylation (HAc) and these enzymes are still controversial. Some new evidence has revealed that HATs and HDACs inhibitors are renoprotective in cellular and animal models of DN, while, on the other hand, upregulation of HAc has been implicated in the pathogenesis of DN. In this review, we focus on the recent advances on the roles of HAc and their covalent enzymes in the development and progression of DN in certain cellular processes including fibrosis, inflammation, hypertrophy, and oxidative stress and discuss how targeting these enzymes and their inhibitors can ultimately lead to the therapeutic approaches for treating DN.