Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Journal of Diabetes Research
Volume 2016 (2016), Article ID 4132589, 9 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2016/4132589
Research Article

Ischemic Stroke and Its Risk Factors in a Registry-Based Large Cross-Sectional Diabetic Cohort in a Country Facing a Diabetes Epidemic

1University Diabetes Center, College of Medicine, King Saud University, P.O. Box 18397, Riyadh 11415, Saudi Arabia
2Department of Medicine, College of Medicine, King Saud University, P.O. Box 2925, Riyadh 11461, Saudi Arabia
3Registry Department, University Diabetes Center, King Saud University, P.O. Box 245, Riyadh 11411, Saudi Arabia
4Department of Biostatistics, Epidemiology and Scientific Computing, King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Center, P.O. Box 3345, Riyadh 11211, Saudi Arabia
5Biostatistics Department, University Diabetes Center, King Saud University, P.O. Box 245, Riyadh 11411, Saudi Arabia

Received 25 October 2015; Revised 8 December 2015; Accepted 14 January 2016

Academic Editor: Mitsuhiko Noda

Copyright © 2016 Khalid Al-Rubeaan et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. California HealthCare Foundation, “Chronic Disease Registries: A Product Review,” 2015, http://www.chcf.org/publications/2004/05/chronic-disease-registries-a-product-review.
  2. R. E. Gliklich, N. A. Dreyer, and M. B. Leavy, Registries for Evaluating Patient Outcomes: A User's Guide, Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, Rockville, Md, USA, 3rd edition, 2014.
  3. International Diabetes Federation, IDF Diabetes Atlas, International Diabetes Federation, Brussels, Belgium, 6th edition, 2013, http://www.idf.org/diabetesatlas.
  4. K. A. Al-Rubeaan, A. M. Youssef, S. N. Subhani, N. A. Ahmad, A. H. Al-Sharqawi, and H. M. Ibrahim, “A web-Based interactive diabetes registry for health care management and planning in saudi arabia,” Journal of Medical Internet Research, vol. 15, no. 9, article e202, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. D. Sander, K. Sander, and H. Poppert, “Review: stroke in type 2 diabetes,” The British Journal of Diabetes & Vascular Disease, vol. 8, no. 5, pp. 222–229, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. K. Jamrozik, R. J. Broadhurst, S. Forbes, G. J. Hankey, and C. S. Anderson, “Predictors of death and vascular events in the elderly: the Perth community stroke study,” Stroke, vol. 31, no. 4, pp. 863–868, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. T. M. E. Davis, H. Millns, I. M. Stratton, R. R. Holman, R. C. Turner, and P. Bassett, “Risk factors for stroke in type 2 diabetes mellitus: united Kingdom Prospective Diabetes Study (UKPDS) 29,” Archives of Internal Medicine, vol. 159, no. 10, pp. 1097–1103, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. G. J. Hankey, K. Jamrozik, R. J. Broadhurst et al., “Long-term risk of first recurrent stroke in the Perth community stroke study,” Stroke, vol. 29, no. 12, pp. 2491–2500, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. J. A. Luchsinger, M.-X. Tang, Y. Stern, S. Shea, and R. Mayeux, “Diabetes mellitus and risk of Alzheimer's disease and dementia with stroke in a multiethnic cohort,” American Journal of Epidemiology, vol. 154, no. 7, pp. 635–641, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. D. S. H. Bell, “Stroke in the diabetic patient,” Diabetes Care, vol. 17, no. 3, pp. 213–219, 1994. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. G. J. Hankey, N. E. Anderson, R.-D. Ting et al., “Rates and predictors of risk of stroke and its subtypes in diabetes: a prospective observational study,” Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery and Psychiatry, vol. 84, no. 3, pp. 281–287, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. J. O'Connell, R. Yi, C. Wilson, S. M. Manson, and K. J. Acton, “Racial disparities in health status: a comparison of the morbidity among American Indian and U.S. adults with diabetes,” Diabetes Care, vol. 33, no. 7, pp. 1463–1470, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. N. J. Morrish, L. K. Stevens, J. H. Fuller, H. Keen, and R. J. Jarrett, “Incidence of macrovascular disease in diabetes mellitus: the London cohort of the WHO Multinational Study of Vascular Disease in Diabetics,” Diabetologia, vol. 34, no. 8, pp. 584–589, 1991. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. F. Al-Maskari, M. El-Sadig, and J. N. Norman, “The prevalence of macrovascular complications among diabetic patients in the United Arab Emirates,” Cardiovascular Diabetology, vol. 6, article 24, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. WHO MONICA Project Principal Investigators, “The world health organization monica project (monitoring trends and determinants in cardiovascular disease): a major international collaboration,” Journal of Clinical Epidemiology, vol. 41, no. 2, pp. 105–114, 1988. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. K. M. Michael and M. Shaughnessy, “Stroke prevention and management in older adults,” The Journal of Cardiovascular Nursing, vol. 21, no. 5, pp. S21–S26, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. P. Appelros, B. Stegmayr, and A. Terént, “Sex differences in stroke epidemiology: a systematic review,” Stroke, vol. 40, no. 4, pp. 1082–1090, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. F. Palm, C. Urbanek, J. Wolf et al., “Etiology, risk factors and sex differences in ischemic stroke in the Ludwigshafen Stroke Study, a population-based stroke registry,” Cerebrovascular Diseases, vol. 33, no. 1, pp. 69–75, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. D. N. Krause, S. P. Duckles, and D. A. Pelligrino, “Influence of sex steroid hormones on cerebrovascular function,” Journal of Applied Physiology, vol. 101, no. 4, pp. 1252–1261, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. J. Roquer, A. R. Campello, and M. Gomis, “Sex differences in first-ever acute stroke,” Stroke, vol. 34, no. 7, pp. 1581–1585, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. T. Almdal, H. Scharling, J. S. Jensen, and H. Vestergaard, “The independent effect of type 2 diabetes mellitus on ischemic heart disease, stroke, and death: a population-based study of 13 000 men and women with 20 years of follow-up,” Archives of Internal Medicine, vol. 164, no. 13, pp. 1422–1426, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. H. Iso, H. Imano, A. Kitamura et al., “Type 2 diabetes and risk of non-embolic ischaemic stroke in Japanese men and women,” Diabetologia, vol. 47, no. 12, pp. 2137–2144, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. S. Lehto, T. Rönnemaa, K. Pyörälä, and M. Laakso, “Predictors of stroke in middle-aged patients with non-insulin-dependent diabetes,” Stroke, vol. 27, no. 1, pp. 63–68, 1996. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. B. M. Kissela, J. Khoury, D. Kleindorfer et al., “Epidemiology of ischemic stroke in patients with diabetes: the greater Cincinnati/Northern Kentucky stroke study,” Diabetes Care, vol. 28, no. 2, pp. 355–359, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. H. S. Jørgensen, H. Nakayama, H. O. Raaschou, and T. S. Olsen, “Stroke in patients with diabetes: the Copenhagen stroke study,” Stroke, vol. 25, no. 10, pp. 1977–1984, 1994. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. R. X. You, J. J. McNeil, H. M. O'Malley, S. M. Davis, A. G. Thrift, and G. A. Donnan, “Risk factors for stroke due to cerebral infarction in young adults,” Stroke, vol. 28, no. 10, pp. 1913–1918, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. B. M. Kissela, J. C. Khoury, K. Alwell et al., “Age at stroke: temporal trends in stroke incidence in a large, biracial population,” Neurology, vol. 79, no. 17, pp. 1781–1787, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. C.-H. Tseng, C.-K. Chong, J.-J. Sheu, T.-H. Wu, and C.-P. Tseng, “Prevalence and risk factors for stroke in Type 2 diabetic patients in Taiwan: a cross-sectional survey of a national sample by telephone interview,” Diabetic Medicine, vol. 22, no. 4, pp. 477–482, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. F. Guerrero-Romero and M. Rodríguez-Morán, “Proteinuria is an independent risk factor for ischemic stroke in non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus,” Stroke, vol. 30, no. 9, pp. 1787–1791, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. J. Tuomilehto, D. Rastenyté, P. Jousilahti, C. Sarti, and E. Vartiainen, “Diabetes mellitus as a risk factor for death from stroke. Prospective study of the middle-aged finnish population,” Stroke, vol. 27, no. 2, pp. 210–215, 1996. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. A. Karagiannis, K. Tziomalos, P. Anagnostis et al., “The effect of antihypertensive agents on insulin sensitivity, lipids and haemostasis,” Current Vascular Pharmacology, vol. 8, no. 6, pp. 792–803, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. C. B. Giorda, A. Avogaro, M. Maggini et al., “Incidence and risk factors for stroke in type 2 diabetic patients: the DAI study,” Stroke, vol. 38, no. 4, pp. 1154–1160, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. A. Awada and S. Al Rajeh, “The Saudi Stroke Data Bank. Analysis of the first 1000 cases,” Acta Neurologica Scandinavica, vol. 100, no. 4, pp. 265–269, 1999. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. S. Al-Rajeh, E. Larbi, O. Bademosi et al., “Stroke in a tertiary hospital in Saudi Arabia: a study of 372 cases,” European Neurology, vol. 31, no. 4, pp. 251–256, 1991. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  35. X. Yang, W.-Y. So, A. P. S. Kong et al., “Development and validation of stroke risk equation for Hong Kong Chinese patients with type 2 diabetes: the Hong Kong Diabetes Registry,” Diabetes Care, vol. 30, no. 1, pp. 65–70, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. S. H. Meves, C. Diehm, K. Berger et al., “Peripheral arterial disease as an independent predictor for excess stroke morbidity and mortality in primary-care patients: 5-year results of the getABI study,” Cerebrovascular Diseases, vol. 29, no. 6, pp. 546–554, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  37. S. Hägg, L. M. Thorn, J. Putaala et al., “Incidence of stroke according to presence of diabetic nephropathy and severe diabetic retinopathy in patients with type 1 diabetes,” Diabetes Care, vol. 36, no. 12, pp. 4140–4146, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  38. A. M. Abu El-Asrar, K. A. Al-Rubeaan, S. A. Al-Amro, O. A. Moharram, and D. Kangave, “Retinopathy as a predictor of other diabetic complications,” International Ophthalmology, vol. 24, no. 1, pp. 1–11, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  39. D. B. Petitti and H. Bhatt, “Retinopathy as a risk factor for nonembolic stroke in diabetic subjects,” Stroke, vol. 26, no. 4, pp. 593–596, 1995. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  40. S. M. Aronson, “Intracranial vascular lesions in patients with diabetes mellitus,” Journal of Neuropathology and Experimental Neurology, vol. 32, no. 2, pp. 183–196, 1973. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  41. T. Deckert, B. Feldt-Rasmussen, K. Borch-Johnsen, T. Jensen, and A. Kofoed-Enevoldsen, “Albuminuria reflects widespread vascular damage. The steno hypothesis,” Diabetologia, vol. 32, no. 4, pp. 219–226, 1989. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  42. P. Knöbl, G. Schernthaner, C. Schnack et al., “Thrombogenic factors are related to urinary albumin excretion rate in Type 1 (insulin-dependent) and Type 2 (non-insulin-dependent) diabetic patients,” Diabetologia, vol. 36, no. 10, pp. 1045–1050, 1993. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  43. C. Banerjee, Y. P. Moon, M. C. Paik et al., “Duration of diabetes and risk of ischemic stroke: the Northern Manhattan Study,” Stroke, vol. 43, no. 5, pp. 1212–1217, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  44. J. S. Jarallah, K. A. Al-Rubeaan, A. R. A. Al-Nuaim, A. A. Al-Ruhaily, and K. A. Kalantan, “Prevalence and determinants of smoking in three regions of Saudi Arabia,” Tobacco Control, vol. 8, no. 1, pp. 53–56, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  45. A. R. Folsom, M. L. Rasmussen, L. E. Chambless et al., “Prospective associations of fasting insulin, body fat distribution, and diabetes with risk of ischemic stroke. The Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) study investigators,” Diabetes Care, vol. 22, no. 7, pp. 1077–1083, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  46. I. Njølstad, E. Arnesen, and P. G. Lund-Larsen, “Body height, cardiovascular risk factors, and risk of stroke in middle-aged men and women: a 14-year follow-up of the Finnmark study,” Circulation, vol. 94, no. 11, pp. 2877–2882, 1996. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  47. S.-H. Suk, R. L. Sacco, B. Boden-Albala et al., “Abdominal obesity and risk of ischemic stroke: the Northern Manhattan Stroke Study,” Stroke, vol. 34, no. 7, pp. 1586–1592, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  48. D. K. Dey, E. Rothenberg, V. Sundh, I. Bosaeus, and B. Steen, “Waist circumference, body mass index, and risk for stroke in older people: a 15-year longitudinal population study of 70-year-olds,” Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, vol. 50, no. 9, pp. 1510–1518, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  49. R. W. Stout, “Insulin and atheroma. 20-Yr perspective,” Diabetes Care, vol. 13, no. 6, pp. 631–654, 1990. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  50. D. J. Schneider, T. K. Nordt, and B. E. Sobel, “Attenuated fibrinolysis and accelerated atherogenesis in type II diabetic patients,” Diabetes, vol. 42, no. 1, pp. 1–7, 1993. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  51. W. Zhao, P. T. Katzmarzyk, R. Horswell, Y. Wang, J. Johnson, and G. Hu, “Sex differences in the risk of stroke and HbA1c among diabetic patients,” Diabetologia, vol. 57, no. 5, pp. 918–926, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus