Endurance and Resistance Training Affect High Fat Diet-Induced Increase of Ceramides, Inflammasome Expression, and Systemic Inflammation in Mice
(a) Percent change in cytokine levels in the high fat groups relative to the ST/S group. Exercise, in particular resistance training, showed the tendency to partially reverse the HFD-induced increase in several cytokines. For each individual animal the percentage change in cytokine level relative to the mean cytokine levels of the ST/S group was calculated. The black bars represent the percentage changes in cytokine production after HFD/S in comparison to the mean of the ST/S group. (b) Heat map summarizing cytokine production in plasma samples of mice fed either a ST diet or a HFD that were subjected to endurance and resistance training, as well as sedentarism. Each column shows the mean of six animals per group. The scale represents the -scores from the log2-transformed values of each cytokine (red indicates , green indicates , and black indicates ). ST: standard diet, HFD: high fat diet, S: sedentary, ET: endurance training, and RT: resistance training. For each group . MCP-5: monocyte chemotactic protein-5, M-CSF: macrophage colony-stimulating factor-1, mEGF: epidermal growth factor mouse, Apo A-I: apolipoprotein A-I, VEGF-A: vascular endothelial growth factor A, mGCP-2: granulocyte chemotactic protein-2 mouse, IL-1α: interleukin 1 alpha, MIP-1β: macrophage inflammatory protein-1β, VCAM-1: vascular cell adhesion molecule-1, MIP-1γ: macrophage inflammatory protein-1 gamma, SCF: stem cell factor, mCRP: C-reactive protein mouse, SAP: plasma amyloid P-component, MDC: macrophage-derived chemokine, FGF-basic: fibroblast growth factor basic, TF: tissue factor, KC/GRO: growth-regulated α protein, vWF: von Willebrand factor, MMP9: matrix metalloproteinase 9, MPO: myeloperoxidase, MCP-3: monocyte chemotactic protein 3, Timp-1: tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 1 mouse, and IP-10: interferon gamma-induced protein 10.
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