Table 1: Urinary biomarkers in the assessment of early diabetic nephropathy.

Glomerular biomarkersTubular biomarkers

TransferrinMicroalbuminuria
The main marker in current use
Neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL)
Immunoglobulin GAlpha-1-microglobulin
CeruloplasminKidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1)
Type IV collagenN-acetyl-β-D glucosaminidase
LamininAngiotensinogen
GlycosaminoglycansCystatin C
Lipocalin-type prostaglandin D synthaseLiver-type fatty acid binding protein
FibronectinNephrine
Podocytes-podocalyxinHeart fatty binding protein
Vascular endothelial growth factor/VEGFAdvanced glycation end products

Inflammatory biomarkersOther new markers under studyOxidative stress biomarkers

Tumor necrosis factor alphaRetinol binding protein-48-Oxo-7,8-dihydro-2′-deoxyguanosine
OrosomucoidVitamin D binding protein
Heme oxygenase-1
Periostin
Alpha klotho
Microvesicle-bound dipeptidyl peptidase IV
MicroRNA
Adipokinesine alpha-2 glycoprotein