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Journal of Diabetes Research
Volume 2016, Article ID 5741518, 12 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2016/5741518
Research Article

Urinary Extracellular Vesicles: Potential Biomarkers of Renal Function in Diabetic Patients

1Department of Medical Physics, Marian Smoluchowski Institute of Physics, Faculty of Physics, Astronomy and Applied Computer Science, Jagiellonian University, 30-348 Kraków, Poland
2Department of Chemistry, Loughborough University, Loughborough LE11 3TU, UK
3Laboratory of High Resolution Mass Spectrometry, Regional Laboratory of Physicochemical Analysis and Structural Research, Faculty of Chemistry, Jagiellonian University, 30-060 Kraków, Poland
4Department of Diagnostics, Chair of Clinical Biochemistry, Jagiellonian University Medical College, 31-501 Kraków, Poland
5St’ Queen Jadwiga Clinical District Hospital No. 2, 35-301 Rzeszów, Poland
6Department of Cell Biology and Imaging, Institute of Zoology, Faculty of Biology and Earth Sciences, Jagiellonian University, 30-387 Kraków, Poland
7Department of Solid State Physics, Marian Smoluchowski Institute of Physics, Faculty of Physics, Astronomy and Applied Computer Science, Jagiellonian University, 30-348 Kraków, Poland
8Department of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, Jagiellonian University, 30-060 Kraków, Poland
9Department of Nephrology, Jagiellonian University Medical College, 31-501 Kraków, Poland

Received 28 September 2016; Revised 8 November 2016; Accepted 13 November 2016

Academic Editor: Feng Wang

Copyright © 2016 Agnieszka Kamińska et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

The aim of this study was to check the relationship between the density of urinary EVs, their size distribution, and the progress of early renal damage in type 2 diabetic patients (DMt2). Patients were enrolled to this study, and glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) below 7% was a threshold for properly controlled diabetic patients (CD) and poorly controlled diabetic patients (UD). Patients were further divided into two groups: diabetic patients without renal failure (NRF) and with renal failure (RF) according to the Glomerular Filtration Rate. Density and diameter of EVs were determined by Tunable Resistive Pulse Sensing. Additionally, EVs were visualized by means of Transmission and Environmental Scanning Electron Microscopy. Nano-liquid chromatography coupled offline with mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS/MS) was applied for proteomic analysis. RF had reduced density of EVs compared to NRF. The size distribution study showed that CD had larger EVs (mode) than UD (115 versus 109 nm; ); nevertheless the mean EVs diameter was smaller in controls than in the CD group (123 versus 134 nm; ). It was demonstrated that EVs are abundant in urine. Albumin, uromodulin, and number of unique proteins related to cell stress and secretion were detected in the EVs fraction. Density and size of urinary EVs reflect deteriorated renal function and can be considered as potential renal damage biomarkers.