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Journal of Diabetes Research
Volume 2016, Article ID 6156217, 7 pages
Clinical Study

Vitamin D Deficiency Is Not Associated with Diabetic Retinopathy or Maculopathy

1Centre for Endocrinology and Diabetes, Institute of Human Development, University of Manchester and the Manchester Royal Infirmary, Central Manchester Hospital Foundation Trust, Manchester M13 9NT, UK
2Department of Medicine, Barts and the London School of Medicine and Dentistry, London E1 2AD, UK
3Weill Cornell Medical College in Qatar, Doha, Qatar

Received 26 July 2015; Accepted 5 October 2015

Academic Editor: Roberto Mallone

Copyright © 2016 Uazman Alam et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Background. Experimental and clinical studies suggest a possible association between vitamin D deficiency and both diabetic retinopathy and maculopathy. Methods. We have performed a cross-sectional study in adults with types 1 and 2 diabetes mellitus. The relationship between the presence and severity of diabetic retinopathy and maculopathy with serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration was evaluated using logistic regression analyses in the presence of demographic and clinical covariates. Results. 657 adults with diabetes were stratified based on retinopathy grading: No Diabetic Retinopathy (39%), Background Diabetic Retinopathy (37%), Preproliferative Diabetic Retinopathy (21%), and Proliferative Diabetic Retinopathy (3%), respectively. There were no differences in serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations (25(OH)D) between the groups ( versus versus versus  ng/mL, ). Logistic regression analysis demonstrated no statistically significant relationship between the severity of retinopathy and serum 25(OH)D. Furthermore, there was no difference in serum 25(OH)D between those with (, 14%) and those without (, 86%) Diabetic Maculopathy ( versus , ) and no relationship was demonstrated by logistic regression analyses between the two variables. Conclusions. This study has found no association between serum 25(OH)D and the presence and severity of diabetic retinopathy or maculopathy.