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Journal of Diabetes Research
Volume 2016, Article ID 6384759, 14 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2016/6384759
Research Article

Coenzyme Q10 Attenuates High Glucose-Induced Endothelial Progenitor Cell Dysfunction through AMP-Activated Protein Kinase Pathways

1Institute of Clinical Medicine, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei, Taiwan
2Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Taipei Veterans General Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan
3Department of Biotechnology and Laboratory Science in Medicine and Institute of Biotechnology in Medicine, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei, Taiwan
4Division of Cardiology, Taipei Veterans General Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan
5Cardiovascular Research Center, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei, Taiwan
6Division of Nephrology, Department of Medicine, Taipei Veterans General Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan
7Institute and Department of Pharmacology, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei, Taiwan
8Department of Internal Medicine, School of Medicine, College of Medicine, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan
9Department of Medical Research, Taipei Veterans General Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan

Received 5 April 2015; Accepted 10 May 2015

Academic Editor: Yong Wu

Copyright © 2016 Hsiao-Ya Tsai et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10), an antiapoptosis enzyme, is stored in the mitochondria of cells. We investigated whether CoQ10 can attenuate high glucose-induced endothelial progenitor cell (EPC) apoptosis and clarified its mechanism. EPCs were incubated with normal glucose (5 mM) or high glucose (25 mM) enviroment for 3 days, followed by treatment with CoQ10 (10 μM) for 24 hr. Cell proliferation, nitric oxide (NO) production, and JC-1 assay were examined. The specific signal pathways of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), eNOS/Akt, and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) were also assessed. High glucose reduced EPC functional activities, including proliferation and migration. Additionally, Akt/eNOS activity and NO production were downregulated in high glucose-stimulated EPCs. Administration of CoQ10 ameliorated high glucose-induced EPC apoptosis, including downregulation of caspase 3, upregulation of Bcl-2, and increase in mitochondrial membrane potential. Furthermore, treatment with CoQ10 reduced reactive oxygen species, enhanced eNOS/Akt activity, and increased HO-1 expression in high glucose-treated EPCs. These effects were negated by administration of AMPK inhibitor. Transplantation of CoQ10-treated EPCs under high glucose conditions into ischemic hindlimbs improved blood flow recovery. CoQ10 reduced high glucose-induced EPC apoptosis and dysfunction through upregulation of eNOS, HO-1 through the AMPK pathway. Our findings provide a potential treatment strategy targeting dysfunctional EPC in diabetic patients.