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Journal of Diabetes Research
Volume 2016, Article ID 6708164, 12 pages
Research Article

Sociodemographic and Clinical Predictors of Self-Management among People with Poorly Controlled Type 1 and Type 2 Diabetes: The Role of Illness Perceptions and Self-Efficacy

1School of Health and Life Sciences, Glasgow Caledonian University London, London E1 6PX, UK
2Liverpool Hope University, Hope Park, Liverpool L16 9JD, UK
3Diabetes and Endocrinology Department, Aintree University Teaching Hospital, Liverpool L9 7AL, UK
4Diabetes and Endocrinology Department, Royal Liverpool University Hospital, Liverpool L7 8XP, UK

Received 23 January 2015; Revised 1 June 2015; Accepted 7 June 2015

Academic Editor: Nitin Gupta

Copyright © 2016 Abdul-Razak Abubakari et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Self-management is critical if people with diabetes are to minimise their risk of macrovascular and microvascular complications, yet adherence to self-management recommendations is suboptimal. Understanding the predictors of optimal diabetes self-management in specific populations is needed to inform effective interventions. This study investigated the role of demographic and clinical characteristics, illness perceptions, and self-efficacy in explaining adherence to self-management recommendations among people with poorly controlled diabetes in North West of England. Illness perceptions and self-efficacy data were collected using validated questionnaires and clinical data were obtained from hospital records. Correlations were used to investigate bivariate relationships between independent variables and self-management, and multiple regression techniques were used to determine demographic and psychosocial predictors of self-management. Various demographic and clinical characteristics were associated with adherence to self-management recommendations. In particular, employment status explained 11% of the variation in adherence to foot care whilst diabetes treatment category explained 9% of exercise and 21% of the variations in SMBG recommendations. Also, 22% and 8% of the variations in overall self-management were explained by illness perceptions and self-efficacy beliefs, respectively. Illness perceptions and self-efficacy beliefs of people with poorly controlled diabetes are important predictors of their self-management behaviours and could potentially guide effective interventions.