Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Journal of Diabetes Research
Volume 2016, Article ID 7934654, 9 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2016/7934654
Research Article

Glycaemic Control and Associated Self-Management Behaviours in Diabetic Outpatients: A Hospital Based Observation Study in Lusaka, Zambia

1Department of Physiological Sciences, School of Medicine, University of Zambia, Ridgeway Campus, P.O. Box 50110, 10101 Lusaka, Zambia
2Department of Public Health, Section for Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Medicine, University of Zambia, Ridgeway Campus, P.O. Box 50110, 10101 Lusaka, Zambia

Received 8 June 2015; Revised 4 September 2015; Accepted 9 September 2015

Academic Editor: Andrea Tura

Copyright © 2016 Emmanuel Mwila Musenge et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. World Health Organization, Diabetes Fact Sheet No312, World Health Organization, 2013.
  2. S. A. Tabish, “Is diabetes becoming the biggest epidemic of the twenty-first century?” International Journal of Health Sciences, vol. 1, no. 2, pp. 5–5, 2007. View at Google Scholar
  3. D. Cheng, “Prevalence, predisposition and prevention of type II diabetes,” Nutrition & Metabolism, vol. 2, article 29, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. R. Sicree, J. Shaw, and P. Zimmert, “Heart and Diabetes Institute, the global burden: diabetes and impaired glucose,” in International Diabetes Federation: Diabetes Atlas, vol. 4, International Diabetes Federation, 2010. View at Google Scholar
  5. International Diabetes Federation, International Diabetes Federation Diabetes Atlas, vol. 6, International Diabetes Federation, 2013.
  6. M. E. Cox and D. Edelman, “Tests for screening and diagnosis of type 2 diabetes,” Clinical Diabetes, vol. 27, no. 4, pp. 132–138, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. A. Hartz, S. Kent, P. James, Y. Xu, M. Kelly, and J. Daly, “Factors that influence improvement for patients with poorly controlled type 2 diabetes,” Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice, vol. 74, no. 3, pp. 227–232, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. M. L. Larsen, M. Hørder, and E. F. Mogensen, “Effect of long-term monitoring of glycosylated hemoglobin levels in insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus,” The New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 323, no. 15, pp. 1021–1025, 1990. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. L. Roszyk, B. Faye, V. Sapin, F. Somda, and I. Tauveron, “Glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c): today and tomorrow,” Annales d'Endocrinologie, vol. 68, no. 5, pp. 357–365, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. K. Mahmood and A. H. Aamir, “Glycemic control status in patients with type-2 diabetes,” Journal of the College of Physicians and Surgeons Pakistan, vol. 15, no. 6, pp. 323–325, 2005. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. E. D. Moreira Jr., R. C. S. Neves, Z. O. Nunes et al., “Glycemic control and its correlates in patients with diabetes in Venezuela: results from a nationwide survey,” Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice, vol. 87, no. 3, pp. 407–414, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. E. Sobngwi, M. Ndour-Mbaye, K. A. Boateng et al., “Type 2 diabetes control and complications in specialised diabetes care centres of six sub-Saharan African countries: the Diabcare Africa study,” Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice, vol. 95, no. 1, pp. 30–36, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. R. T. Erasmus, E. Blanco Blanco, A. B. Okesina, Z. Gqweta, and T. Matsha, “Assessment of glycaemic control in stable type 2 black South African diabetics attending a peri-urban clinic,” Postgraduate Medical Journal, vol. 75, no. 888, pp. 603–606, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. G. M. Rwegerera, “Adherence to anti-diabetic drugs among patients with Type 2 diabetes mellitus at Muhimbili National Hospital, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania—a cross-sectional study,” Pan African Medical Journal, vol. 17, article 252, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  15. A. B. V. Mendes, J. A. S. Fittipaldi, R. C. S. Neves, A. R. Chacra, and E. D. Moreira Jr., “Prevalence and correlates of inadequate glycaemic control: results from a nationwide survey in 6,671 adults with diabetes in Brazil,” Acta Diabetologica, vol. 47, no. 2, pp. 137–145, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  16. N. S. Ahmad, F. Islahudin, and T. Paraidathathu, “Factors associated with good glycemic control among patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus,” Journal of Diabetes Investigation, vol. 5, no. 5, pp. 563–569, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. Z. Ghazanfari, S. Niknami, F. Ghofranipour, B. Larijani, H. Agha-Alinejad, and A. Montazeri, “Determinants of glycemic control in female diabetic patients: a study from Iran. In Roszyk, L. et al. Glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c): today and tomorrow,” Annales d'Endocrinologie, vol. 68, pp. 357–365, 2010. View at Google Scholar
  18. Ministry of Health, National Health Strategic Plan 2011–2015: Towards Attainment of Health Related Millennium Development Goals, Ministry of Health, 2010.
  19. University Teaching Hospital, University Teaching Hospital Action Plan 2009/2010: Health Management Information System, University Teaching Hospital, Lusaka, Zambia, 2010.
  20. J. Michel, C. Matlakala, R. English, R. Lessells, and M.-L. Newell, “Collective patient behaviours derailing ART roll-out in KwaZulu-Natal: perspectives of health care providers,” AIDS Research and Therapy, vol. 10, article 20, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. E. A. Nyenwe, T. W. Jerkins, G. E. Umpierrez, and A. E. Kitabchi, “Management of type 2 diabetes: evolving strategies for the treatment of patients with type 2 diabetes,” Metabolism, vol. 60, no. 1, pp. 1–23, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. R. V. Krejcie and D. W. Morgan, “Determining sample size for research activities,” Educational and Psychological Measurement, vol. 30, pp. 607–610, 1970. View at Google Scholar
  23. World Health Organization, World Health Organization STEPwise Approach to Chronic Disease Risk Factor Surveillance (STEPS) Instrument, Version 3, World Health Organization, 2007.
  24. G. Eknoyan, “Adolphe quetelet (1796-1874)—the average man and indices of obesity,” Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation, vol. 23, no. 1, pp. 47–51, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. World Health Organization, “BMI classification,” Global Database on BMI, World Health Organization, 2006. View at Google Scholar
  26. D. B. Sacks, “Carbohydrates,” in TIETZ Textbook of Clinical Chemistry and Molecular Diagnostics, C. A. Burtis, E. R. Ashood, and D. E. Burns, Eds., p. 884, Saunders Elsevier, St. Louis, Mo, USA, 2006. View at Google Scholar
  27. K. Arvind, K. M. Rajiv, and S. R. Sudhanshu, “Studies on impact of industrial pollution on biochemical and histological changes in a catfish, mystus vittatus (Bloch),” in Industrial Pollution and Management, A. Kumar, Ed., vol. 9, APH Publishing, 2004. View at Google Scholar
  28. International Diabetes Federation, International Diabetes Federation Atlas, International Diabetes Federation, 4th edition, 2009.
  29. World Health Organization, Preventing Chronic Diseases: A Vital Investment, World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland, 2010.
  30. R. E. Glasgow, K. D. McCaul, and L. C. Schafer, “Self-care behaviors and glycemic control in type I diabetes,” Journal of Chronic Diseases, vol. 40, no. 5, pp. 399–412, 1987. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. S. M. S. Kurtz, “Adherence to diabetes regimens: empirical status and clinical applications,” The Diabetes Educator, vol. 16, no. 1, pp. 50–56, 1990. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. R. L. Kravitz, R. D. Hays, C. D. Sherbourne et al., “Recall of recommendations and adherence to advice among patients with chronic medical conditions,” Archives of Internal Medicine, vol. 153, no. 16, pp. 1869–1878, 1993. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. R. M. Anderson, J. T. Fitzgerald, and M. S. Oh, “The relationship between diabetes-related attitudes and patients' self-reported adherence,” The Diabetes Educator, vol. 19, no. 4, pp. 287–292, 1993. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. S. Allemann, C. Houriet, P. Diem, and C. Stettler, “Self-monitoring of blood glucose in non-insulin treated patients with type 2 diabetes: a systematic review and meta-analysis,” Current Medical Research and Opinion, vol. 25, no. 12, pp. 2903–2914, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  35. N. S. Ahmad, A. Ramli, and T. Paraidathathu, “Medication adehrence in atients with type 2 diabetes mellitus treated at primary health clinics in Malaysia,” Dovepress, vol. 7, pp. 525–530, 2013. View at Google Scholar
  36. J. H. M. Quah, Y. P. Liu, N. Luo, C. H. How, and E. G. Tay, “Younger adult type 2 diabetic patients have poorer glycaemic control: a cross-sectional study in a primary care setting in Singapore,” BMC Endocrine Disorders, vol. 13, article 18, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  37. Y. Bi, D. Zhu, J. Cheng et al., “The status of glycemic control: a cross-sectional study of outpatients with type 2 diabetes mellitus across primary, secondary, and tertiary hospitals in the jiangsu province of China,” Clinical Therapeutics, vol. 32, no. 5, pp. 973–983, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  38. A. Mario and A. Sridevi, “Diabetes in sub-saharan Africa: Kenya, Mali, Mozambique, Nigeria, South Africa and Zambia,” International Journal of Diabetes in Developing Countries, vol. 28, no. 4, pp. 101–108, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  39. K. Makrilakis and N. Katsilambros, “Prediction and prevention of type 2 diabetes,” HORMONES, vol. 2, no. 1, pp. 22–34, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  40. S. B. Leichter, “Making outpatient care of diabetes more efficient: analyzing noncompliance,” Clinical Diabetes, vol. 23, no. 4, pp. 187–190, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  41. J. N. Kalyango, E. Owino, and A. P. Nambuya, “Non-adherence to diabetic treatment at Mulgo Hospital in Uganda: prevalence and associated factors,” African Health Sciences, vol. 8, no. 2, pp. 67–73, 2008 (Portuguese). View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  42. K. Inoue, M. Matsumoto, and Y. Kobayashi, “The combination of fasting plasma glucose and glycosylated hemoglobin predicts type 2 diabetes in Japanese workers,” Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice, vol. 77, no. 3, pp. 451–458, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  43. G. Bozkaya, E. Ozgu, and B. Karaca, “The association between estimated average glucose levels and fasting plasma glucose levels,” Clinics, vol. 65, no. 11, pp. 1077–1080, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  44. R. BeLue, T. A. Okoror, J. Iwelunmor et al., “An overview of cardiovascular risk factor burden in sub-Saharan African countries: a socio-cultural perspective,” Globalization and Health, vol. 5, article 10, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  45. D. Beran, J. S. Yudkin, and M. de Courten, “Access to care for patients with insulin-requiring diabetes in developing countries: case studies of Mozambique and Zambia,” Diabetes Care, vol. 28, no. 9, pp. 2136–2140, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  46. R. L. Rothman, S. Mulvaney, T. A. Elasy et al., “Self-management behaviors, racial disparities, and glycemic control among adolescents with type 2 diabetes,” Pediatrics, vol. 121, no. 4, pp. e912–e919, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  47. V. Reisig, P. Reitmeir, A. Döing, W. Rathmann, and A. Mielck, “Social inequalities and outcomes in type 2 diabetes in the German region of Augsburg. A cross-sectional survey,” International Journal of Public Health, vol. 52, no. 3, pp. 158–165, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  48. K. Arai, K. Hirao, I. Matsuba et al., “The status of glycemic control by general practitioners and specialists for diabetes in Japan: a cross-sectional survey of 15,652 patients with diabetes mellitus,” Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice, vol. 83, no. 3, pp. 397–401, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  49. H. Knobel, A. Carmona, S. Grau, J. Pedro-Botet, and A. Diez, “Adherence and effectiveness of highly active antiretroviral therapy,” Archives of Internal Medicine, vol. 158, no. 17, pp. 1949–1953, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  50. S. M. Curkendall, N. Thomas, K. F. Bell, P. L. Juneau, and A. J. Weiss, “Predictors of medication adherence in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus,” Current Medical Research and Opinion, vol. 29, no. 10, pp. 1275–1286, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  51. V. W. Y. Lee and P. Y. Leung, “Glycemic control and medication compliance in diabetic patients in a pharmacist-managed clinic in Hong Kong,” American Journal of Health-System Pharmacy, vol. 60, no. 24, pp. 2593–2596, 2003. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  52. Y. Bezie, M. Molina, N. Hernandez, R. Batista, S. Niang, and D. Huet, “Therapeutic compliance: a prospective analysis of various factors involved in the adherence rate in type 2 diabetes,” Diabetes & Metabolism, vol. 32, no. 6, pp. 611–616, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus