Journal of Diabetes Research / 2016 / Article / Tab 1

Research Article

Plasma C1q/TNF-Related Protein-9 Levels Are Associated with Atherosclerosis in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes without Renal Dysfunction

Table 1

Clinical characteristics, plasma CTRP9 levels, plasma adiponectin levels, and carotid IMT in all subjects with type 2 diabetes as well as in subgroups with and without CKD.

All subjectsNon-CKDCKD

(male %)419 (58.5)258 (54.3)161 (65.2)0.027
Age (years)65 [55–71]62 [52–68]68 [62–74]<0.001
Duration of diabetes (years)11 [5–20]9 [2–17]16 [10–22]<0.001
BMI (kg/m2)25.0 [22.0–27.9]25.1 [21.8–28.2]24.6 [22.3–27.6]0.708
Systolic BP (mmHg)128 [116–143]124 [113–137]136 [121–150]<0.001
Diastolic BP (mmHg)73 [67–80]73 [67–79]74 [67–82]0.448
Smoker (%)200 (47.7)118 (45.7)82 (50.9)0.030
Antihyperglycemic agents (%)
 None43 (10.3)27 (10.5)16 (9.9)0.863
 Sulfonylureas152 (36.3)107 (41.5)45 (28.0)0.005
 Biguanides133 (31.7)106 (41.1)27 (16.8)<0.001
 DPP-4 inhibitors117 (27.9)75 (29.1)42 (26.1)0.508
 Thiazolidinediones48 (11.5)37 (14.3)11 (6.8)0.019
 Insulin OHA178 (42.5)88 (34.1)90 (56.0)<0.001
Statin (%)180 (43.0)99 (38.4)81 (50.3)0.016
ARB/ACEI (%)169 (40.3)87 (33.7)82 (50.9)<0.001
Fasting glucose (mg/dL)119 [102–145]120 [106–147]117 [95–142]0.080
HbA1c (%)8.4 [7.3–9.7]8.6 [7.6–10.0]8.2 [7.0–9.4]0.003
Immunoreactive insulin (U/mL)6.7 [4.6–10.1]6.7 [4.5–10.3]7.0 [4.6–9.5]0.876
HOMA-R2.02 [1.32–2.93]2.10 [1.33–2.99]1.85 [1.28–2.61]0.285
Serum creatinine (mg/dL)0.81 [0.66–1.08]0.70 [0.60–0.81]1.27 [1.02–1.87]<0.001
eGFR (mL/min/1.73 m2)67.0 [49.3–79.0]76.7 [68.8–87.3]42.7 [25.9–53.8]<0.001
Triglycerides (mg/dL)116 [90–153]112 [83–145]124 [94–176]0.006
HDL-cholesterol (mg/dL)41 [36–50]42 [37–52]40 [35–47]0.019
LDL-cholesterol (mg/dL)106 [84–133]108 [88–135]99 [79–128]0.012
Adiponectin (μg/mL) 6.2 [3.8–12.0]5.2 [3.5–9.4]8.4 [4.9–14.7]<0.001
CTRP9 (μg/mL)17.4 [9.4–27.8]13.9 [8.2–22.6]22.5 [14.9–37.5]<0.001
Max-IMT (mm)1.08 [0.92–1.25]1.05 [0.89–1.20]1.14 [0.97–1.33]<0.001
Mean-IMT (mm)0.76 [0.66–0.87]0.74 [0.64–0.86]0.79 [0.68–0.90]0.005

Data are expressed as median [interquartile range] or (%), as appropriate. p  values were determined by using Wilcoxon rank-sum test or -test, as appropriate, for comparison between the CKD and non-CKD groups. , for all subjects, for the non-CKD group, and for the CKD group not receiving insulin therapy. CKD, chronic kidney disease; BMI, body mass index; BP, blood pressure; smoker, prevalence of current or past smokers; DPP, dipeptidyl peptidase; OHA, oral antihyperglycemic agent; statin, prevalence of subjects treated with stains; ARB/ACEI, prevalence of subjects treated with angiotensin II receptor antagonists or ACE inhibitors; HbA1c, glycated hemoglobin A1c; HOMA-R, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance; eGFR, estimated glomerular filtration rate; HDL, high-density lipoprotein; LDL, low-density lipoprotein; CTRP, C1q/TNF-related protein; IMT, intima-media thickness.

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