Journal of Diabetes Research / 2016 / Article / Tab 2

Research Article

Glucose Tolerance, MTHFR C677T and NOS3 G894T Polymorphisms, and Global DNA Methylation in Mixed Ancestry African Individuals

Table 2

Baseline characteristics across quarters of global DNA methylation.

CharacteristicGlobal DNA methylation difference-trend ( value)β ( value)
Q1Q2Q3Q4

141141140142
Actual% 5mc
 Median0.142.143.977.27
Women, (%)100 (70.9)109 (77.3)115 (82.1)114 (80.3)0.1170.0360.076 (0.070)0.543 (0.063)
Any diabetes31 (22.0)38 (26.9)36 (25.7)53 (37.3)0.0280.0080.101 (0.016)0.621 (0.036)
Diabetes status, (%)0.00070.1450.082 (0.052)
 None110 (78.0)103 (73.0)104 (74.3)89 (62.7)Reference
 Screen-detected15 (10.6)23 (16.3)17 (12.1)42 (29.6)1.069 (0.004)
 Known diabetes16 (11.3)15 (10.6)19 (13.6)11 (7.7)−0.026 (0.947)
Current smoking, (%)55 (39.0)60 (42.5)59 (42.1)50 (35.2)0.5620.519−0.038 (0.367)−0.162 (0.505)
Current drinking, (%)40 (28.4)37 (26.2)37 (26.4)36 (25.3)0.9500.594−0.019 (0.648)0.211 (0.494)
Age (years)51 (41–64)52 (44–60)53 (44–62)53 (44–64)0.8830.5230.036 (0.391)0.007 (0.443)
Body mass index (kg/m2)29.1 (24.4–33.4)28.8 (23.6–34.7)28.6 (24.3–34.3)31.0 (26.3–34.9)0.2090.0510.090 (0.033)0.015 (0.464)
Waist circumference (cm) 96.0 (85.5–104.0)96.5 (85.1–108.0)97.0 (87.5–106.4)99.5 (88.4–108.2)0.2560.0530.090 (0.033)0.007 (0.444)
Hip circumference (cm)107.8 (98.0–116.5)108.0 (99.2–118.0)109.2 (100.2–117.5)110.0 (101.5–121.0)0.3850.0830.083 (0.050)0.004 (0.685)
Waist-to-hip ratio0.87 (0.82–0.93)0.87 (0.83–0.93)0.87 (0.84–0.92)0.88 (0.83–0.93)0.8710.4770.031 (0.465)1.265 (0.470)
Systolic blood pressure (mmHg)121 (109–137)120 (109–134)119 (108–129)120 (109–133)0.5700.514−0.025 (0.557)−0.012 (0.090)
Diastolic blood pressure (mmHg)75 (66–82)74 (67–83)73 (66–79)73 (67–82)0.5290.379−0.039 (0.357)−0.013 (0.207)
Fasting blood glucose (mmol/L)5.4 (4.9–6.0)5.7 (5.0–6.3)5.4 (5.0–6.3)6.0 (5.0–7.1)0.0060.0030.126 (0.029)0.066 (0.225)
2-hour glucose (mmol/L)6.6 (5.4–9.0)6.9 (6.0–8.8)7.0 (5.6–8.6)7.8 (6.0–10.0)0.0020.00030.167 (0.0002)0.011 (0.824)
HbA1c (%)5.7 (5.5–6.1)5.8 (5.5–6.3)5.9 (5.6–6.3)5.9 (5.5–6.3)0.5190.1950.057 (0.181)−0.039 (0.782)
Fasting insulin (μU/mL)7.3 (3.7–11.7)6.1 (2.1–12.9)6.7 (2.9–12.4)8.3 (3.0–12.8)0.4350.961−0.005 (0.900)−0.016 (0.133)
2-hour insulin (μU/mL)36.3 (19.9–64.3)38.7 (18.3–68.4)39.7 (10.2–68.1)44.1 (19.5–89.4)0.4850.1310.070 (0.120)0.0004 (0.860)
C-reactive protein (mg/L)3.6 (0.9–9.2)4.4 (1.1–9.6)2.8 (0.9–9.4)5.3 (1.7–11.7)0.0910.1210.080 (0.059)0.005 (0.641)
Cotinine (ng/mL)10.0 (9.0–282.1)10 (9–310)10 (9–270)10.0 (9.0–197.2)0.4170.323−0.059 (0.160)−0.002 (0.109)
Gamma-glutamyltransferase (IU/L)27.0 (18.0–40.0)28.0 (20.0–45.7)27.5 (19.0–39.2)28.0 (20.2–44.5)0.8200.6250.0005 (0.991)−0.002 (0.081)
Triglycerides (mmol/L)1.23 (0.93–1.74)1.24 (0.90–1.69)1.27 (0.87–1.81)1.34 (1.06–1.92)0.0960.0480.079 (0.061)−0.065 (0.642)
HDL-cholesterol (mmol/L)1.28 (1.11–1.46)1.22 (0.99–1.45)1.24 (1.03–1.45)1.16 (0.99–1.44)0.1380.058−0.081 (0.055)−0.509 (0.130)
LDL-cholesterol (mmol/L)3.49 (2.84–4.28)3.43 (2.80–4.05)3.62 (3.00–4.26)3.68 (2.90–4.39)0.2790.1360.079 (0.062)0.078 (0.538)
Total cholesterol (mmol/L)5.52 (4.70–6.40)5.33 (4.59–6.05)5.59 (4.75–6.37)5.54 (4.93–6.46)0.1830.2750.061 (0.147)−0.009 (0.933)

values from Kruskal-Wallis and chi square tests for the differences across quarters of global DNA methylation.
Spearman correlation coefficients and values for the continuous associations of global DNA methylation with covariates.
Beta coefficients and values from age, gender, and status for hyperglycemia and smoking adjusted robust linear regressions for the prediction of global DNA methylation by various traits.

We are committed to sharing findings related to COVID-19 as quickly as possible. We will be providing unlimited waivers of publication charges for accepted research articles as well as case reports and case series related to COVID-19. Review articles are excluded from this waiver policy. Sign up here as a reviewer to help fast-track new submissions.