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Journal of Diabetes Research
Volume 2016 (2016), Article ID 8905474, 6 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2016/8905474
Research Article

Seasonal Pattern in the Diagnosis of Gestational Diabetes Mellitus in Southern Sweden

1Department of Clinical Sciences, Lund University, Malmö, Sweden
2Department of Endocrinology, Skåne University Hospital, Malmö, Sweden
3Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Office for Healthcare “Kryh”, Ystad, Sweden
4Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Office for Healthcare “Sund”, Helsingborg, Sweden

Received 28 October 2016; Accepted 5 December 2016

Academic Editor: Ulrike Rothe

Copyright © 2016 Anastasia Katsarou et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Aim. The aim of this study was to examine seasonal patterns in glucose tolerance and in the diagnosis of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). Methods. Altogether, 11 538 women underwent a 75-g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) in the twenty-eighth week of pregnancy during the years 2003–2005 in southern Sweden. GDM was defined by the 2-h capillary glucose concentration in the OGTT (≥8.9 mmol/L). Chi-squared test, analysis of variance, and regression analyses were used for statistical evaluations. Results. The seasonal frequency of GDM ranged from 3.3% in spring to 5.5% in summer (). Mean 2-h glucose concentrations followed the same seasonal trend, with a difference of 0.15 mmol/L between winter and summer (). The 2-h glucose level increased by 0.009 mmol/L for every degree increase in temperature (). In regression analysis, summer (June–August) was associated with increased 2-h glucose level () and increased frequency of GDM compared to the other seasons (odds ratio 1.51, 95% confidence interval 1.24–1.83, and ). Conclusions. Our findings suggest seasonal variation in the 2-h glucose concentration in the OGTT and in the proportion of women diagnosed with GDM, with a peak in the summer.