Advanced Glycation End Products Impair Glucose-Stimulated Insulin Secretion of a Pancreatic β-Cell Line INS-1-3 by Disturbance of Microtubule Cytoskeleton via p38/MAPK Activation
The effect of AGEs on microtubule dynamics in INS-1-3 cells. (a) Immunostaining images of α-tubulin (green) in INS-1-3 cells incubated with or without AGEs. CON: INS-1-3 cells without treatment; AGEs-48 h and AGEs-72 h: INS-cells treated with AGEs (200 μg/mL) for 48 or 72 hours, respectively. Scale bar: 25 μm. The boxed areas are shown at higher magnification in the right panels to illustrate details of microtubules. (b) The immunoblots of tubulin from soluble and insoluble fractions of INS-1-3 cells (CON) and AGEs-treated cells. Soluble and insoluble fractions containing free tubulin (FT) and polymerized tubulin (MT) were probed with anti-α-tubulin antibody. One of the representative results is shown. Statistical analysis was performed based on three immunoblotting results. The polymerization status of tubulins is presented as the percentage of polymerized tubulin divided by the total tubulin content (sum of densitometric values of free and polymerized tubulins). Data are shown as . .
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