Journal of Diabetes Research / 2017 / Article / Tab 1

Research Article

Parental Diabetes Behaviors and Distress Are Related to Glycemic Control in Youth with Type 1 Diabetes: Longitudinal Data from the DINO Study

Table 1

Baseline characteristics.

Boys N (%)87 (50.0)
Youth’s age (yrs)11.64 (2.18)
HbA1c % (mmol/mol)7.84 (±3.19) (62.15 (±11.35))
Age diabetes onset6.56 (3.72)
Diabetes duration (yrs)5.0983 (3.61)
Pump/injections N (%)134/39 (77.5/22.4)
Completion by mothers N (%)151 (87.3)
Completion online/paper N (%)157/16 (90.8/9.2)
Parental education N (%) 
 (i) Low18 (10.4)
 (ii) Moderate42 (24.1)
 (iii) High112 (64.7)
 (iv) NA1 (0.6)
Ethnic identification other than Dutch N (%)10 (5.8)
Adolescents born in the Netherlands N (%)169 (94.2)
Traditional family composition N (%)138 (81.2)
WHO-5 (0–25)15.49 (5.14)
DFBC supportive (9–45)30.15 (5.37)
DFBC unsupportive (7–35)14.45 (4.44)
PAID-Pr (0–72)13.54 (9.08)
SDQ (0–40)8.20 (6.03)

Data are means ± SD, unless otherwise indicated; HbA1c: hemoglobin A1c; WHO-5: WHO-Five Well-Being Index; DFBC: Diabetes Family Behavior Checklist: PAID-Pr: Problem Areas In Diabetes-Parent Revised version; SDQ: Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire; low: primary school; LBO, Mavo, VMBO, MBO-1, and avo-onderbouw; moderate: Havo, HBS, VWO, and MBO; high: HBO and university [20]. Parents were asked with which ethnicity they identified themselves.

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